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Journal Entries written onboard the: Buffalo

Tuesday 12 July 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

On Board His Majestys Ship Buffalo Portsmouth
July the 12 1836

My Dear parents and friends

I now embrace this opportunity along with
Sir James he intends to leave us tomorrow we have fairly tired him out
Captain Hindmarsh is still in London. He is attending Court to day
to take leave of the King. He is to be here tomorrow and we expect to
get away at the end of the week. I am sure it is quite provoking
the way the[y] have gone on first and last we have been on board since
Friday last. …
… There is a great deal of both ladies and gentlemen going
out with us but they are not come on board yet and a doctor
how many young doctors I do not know. There is another
Scotch family besides us. They came from Fifeshire within 4
miles of Bomino[?] but they do not know Uncle’s folk his name
is Cock he is a joiner with a wife and six children just going
out on his own expense upon chance. He has been this six weeks
at Portsmouth at lodgings and they are very dear here indeed.
There is a great deal of familys going in the Buffalo but they are a [?]
way of us for the children makes such a noise there is 22 in our
mess that is the place that we stop in our beds is six feet long 4 feet wide
They are like press shelfs one above another ours fortunately is an under one there
is no more division than a piece of canvas on the side partition. They are
like my mother’s hens nests. How strange every thing seems here indeed …
…  I had nearly forgot to mention
Sir Pulteney’s son that is at Sidney they had a letter from him
two three days before we left London saying he intended to
make Mr. William a present of a few of the finest of Merino
sheep I suppose these will be about a score but he did not mention
how many but they fancy [?] about what I have stated likewise.
Ferguson has a letter to a gentlemans son there the[y] saw his father
in London. He was selling his wooll he is just returned home
but his son is remaining he told Sir James and Ferguson what
sort of management and sheep was most profitable for the Colony
and sent a letter to his son to render them all the assistance
he could. Every [thing] still appears promising and if we are just favoured
with our Heavenly fathers countenance and protection there is
about 20 of the Royal marines goes out to protect us from our
earthly enemies. There is also a paper to be printed weekly in the Colony
their was one printed before we left London I got a copy
of one which I intend to send along with this …

… I must now stop and wish you good
bys I wish you may be able to make out this scrawl I am far from
you but I have every kindness shown me, more than I ever
expected in my station of life, and more than that one of the kindest
and best of husbands I could desire. If it is the almighty will to spare
us to [?] if not that we may be enabled to undergo what
ever he thinks proper to afflict us with. Ferguson joins me
with sincerest love to you all …
… so good bye and believe us ever your affectionate son and
Rosina Ferguson
July the 12/ 1836

Thursday morning Spithead we have got this far now…
…  After you have read the paper you may
send it to my father in law Hardy [?] perhaps will like to see it.
Sir James has made me a present of a pounds worth of little cake.
It is beef boiled till it is like glue. In case I am sick we dissolve it in
water and it is like beef tea. Now my dear parents I hope you will I seriously
beg of you not to make yourselves unhappy about us for we are
very comfortable, as much and more than we could expect.
I will not let one opportunity slip of giving you every detail of how we are and how we get on…

[ Read the full journal for: Tuesday 12 July 1836 ]


Wednesday 13 July 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Wednesday, July 13, 1836. Fresh breezes & cloudy from the Westward.
The Ship loosed from the Hulk, & anchored at Spithead.

[ Read the full journal for: Wednesday 13 July 1836 ]


Friday 22 July 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Friday July 22. Went with my family on board the
Buffalo this afternoon. The Ship in considerable
confusion. Trunks, bales, barrels, packages and litter
of all sorts strewed about in most admired disorder.
Determined however to overlook as much as possible
inconveniences, common it is believed to the commence-
-ment of all voyages by sea! Although those which
surround us here appear rather formidable. Our
cabins by dint of soap and paint have been rendered
somewhat more comfortable than we at first seeing
them expected, not withstanding six feet by 71/2
leaves much scope for ingenuity in the art of
stowing away, and affords no more room than
our necessities require.

[ Read the full journal for: Friday 22 July 1836 ]


Saturday 23 July 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Saturday July 23. Dropt down to St. Helen’s with
the wind at South West, and from the settled appearance
of the weather there is not any immediate prospect
of change. The Emigrants and Lady and Gentlemen
passengers reconnoitring each other – all apparently
amiably disposed and in tolerable spirits at finding
that after so many heartsickening delays our voyage
is at length about to commence.

[ Read the full journal for: Saturday 23 July 1836 ]


Saturday 23 July 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

July 23. Saturday. Weather fine, & wind NW with every appearance of
a change in our favor. 8. Governor Hindmarsh & family,
J.H. Fisher, Esqre (Colonial Commissioner) & family, came on board.
Noon. Do Wr [Ditto Weather] 1.30. Weighed anchor & stood out, but soon after, the
wind drawing round to the Westward, & the sky assuming a wild
look, we tacked, stood into St Helen’s road, and anchored. at
2.30. Mr T.H. Fisher landed on Isle of Wight. EvengFine. W.S.W.

[ Read the full journal for: Saturday 23 July 1836 ]


Sunday 24 July 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

A strong gale from the S.W. with constant rain. Noon. The wind became more moderate from the N.W. and the rain ceased, but the weather still looked unfavorable. Bad weather & necessary duties in the ship had prevented the per- -formance of Divine Service, but in the evening the emigrants having commenced singing psalms, the [...]

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Sunday 24 July 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Our first Sunday on Ship board and such a Sunday! A gale from the South West, and motion enough even at this anchorage to make the ladies and most of the emigrants qualmish. Moderated towards mid-day. No public attempt at performing divine service or even reading prayers, which might have been the case in the [...]

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Monday 25 July 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Weather cloudy, wind veering from N.W. to N.N.W. Fidded top galt masts & prepared to weigh anchor. P.M. The wind continued fresh from N.W. but it was de- -termined to proceed to sea tomorrow, if it became no more unfavourable. In the afternoon, the Governor’s sister & daughters went to the Isle of Wight for [...]

[ Read the full journal for: Monday 25 July 1836 ]


Tuesday 26 July 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

8. Calm & fine. 10. Light airs & fine from S.W. Sent two boats to assist the Watertank alongside. Completed water & the crew & emigrants consumed 15 tons more in washing & laying in private stocks. Let out the ducks & geese to wash themselves. A party of gentlemen (of whom I was one) [...]

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Wednesday 27 July 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Light winds from Westwd. 5. Weighed & stood to the Southward, close hauled on the starboard tack. 11. Tacked & stood in. Noon. Light airs & fine. P.M. Do Wr. Tacked. 4. Wind light from the South: set topgt studg sails. 8. Do Wr.

[ Read the full journal for: Wednesday 27 July 1836 ]


Wednesday 27 July 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

After two days more perverse wind it changed at last to the east of south, and we put to sea this morning at day break. The number of passengers who are officers of the Colony proprietors of land and their families is thirty seven; Emigrants and their families 136. Crew and Marines above 100.

[ Read the full journal for: Wednesday 27 July 1836 ]


Thursday 28 July 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Three weddings amongst the young Emigrants
this morning. The ceremony was performed by Mr Howard
on the quarter deck in the presence of the Governor, officers
passengers, emigrants and whole ships company. Mr Howard
on this occasion acted under a license granted by the
Governor, and as some doubts have occurred to me, as to the
legality of marriages under such circumstances, I subjoin
a Copy of the licence under which they were celebrated.
“By His Excellency John Hindmarsh Esq. Captain in
the Royal Navy, Knight of the Royal Hanoverian order,
Governor and Captain General of His Majesty’s province
of South Australia,
“Whereas it hath been represented to me that A.B.
&c (Here the names and last residences of the parties
are enumerated) are desirous of being united in
matrimony and that there are no lawful impediments
to the solemnization thereof, now therefore I hereby
authorise you to proceed to solemnize the marriages
between the parties herein before designed with
all convenient speed according to the rites of
the Church and for so doing this shall be your
warrant. Given under my hand & seal &c”
Signed by the Governor &
addressed to the Rev. Mr Howard.

[ Read the full journal for: Thursday 28 July 1836 ]


Thursday 28 July 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Light airs & fine wr, wind S.S.E. steering W.b S.
at 11. The whole of the crew & passengers assembled
to witness the celebration of three weddings on board, previous
to which part of the Morning Service of Prayer, & part of
the Prayers to be used at sea, were offered up by the Revd
C.B. Howard: after the ceremony the married couples and
bridesmaids were regaled in the cabin by His Excellen-
-cy the Governor. Noon. Light airs & fine wr. wind S.S.W.
P.M. Light winds & cloudy, S.W. with a threatening aspect.
The first number of the “Buffalo Telegraph” appeared.
(This was a periodical, to be continued weekly during the
voyage, by contribution of original articles by those on
board). Contributed “a letter from Bembridge” &c. &c. &c.
The wedding parties were regaled with wine on the quarter-
-deck, after which followed singing & dancing. Wind
freshened during the evening against us. Shortened sail.

[ Read the full journal for: Thursday 28 July 1836 ]


Friday 29 July 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Early this morning when off the Bill
of Portland, encountered a heavy gale from the
South West. The Buffalo was not built to contend
against the wind, so we put about after a brief
struggle and ran back for St Helen’s where we came
to anchor at 7 p.m. A Manuscript weekly news-
-paper, edited by Miss Mary Hindmarsh, appeared
yesterday. It does not display superabundant talent
and will not last above a week or two, although
there is little difficulty in extracting old epigrams
and worn out bons mots. A thing of this kind could
be made the source of much interest and amusement
as well as instruction. Some young people are
jealous of their information being suspected, on those
subjects the more especially of which they know nothing.

[ Read the full journal for: Friday 29 July 1836 ]


Friday 29 July 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Fresh breezes with rain, S.W. Under double reefed topsails. Finding the ship was making no progress, while the wind increased in violence against us, we bore up for St Helen’s roads, where we arrived at 8 P.M. The wind increased to a gale from West. Down togt yards.

[ Read the full journal for: Friday 29 July 1836 ]


Saturday 30 July 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Strong gales & cloudy, N.W. Mr Sadler, late Master of the Ship came on board. A lighter came alongside with provisions. Found the Tam o’Shanter, in which my stores were shipped, had been obliged to put in here. Several of her passengers came on board of us. Evening. Weather more modte.

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Sunday 31 July 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Letter to George Fife Angas
H.M.S. Buffalo
St. Helen’s July 31 1836
My dear Sir,
….The Tam O’Shanter came in to these roads
shortly after us having been also driven back. The
Captain reports all his emigrants well, with the
exception of a Mrs Stuckey who is considered by the
surgeon to be rather in some danger. The Dr of the
Buffalo & I have considered his report in the
case and are of opinion it is not more than
a severe attack consequent on sea sickness.

Believe me always my dear Sir
with greatest esteem Yrs faithfully
Geo Stevenson
G.F. Angas Esq

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Sunday 31 July 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Light winds & fine from N.W. to North. 11. The tide serving, we weighed anchor & stood out to sea; before we cleared the island, the wind became unfavorable, & increased in violence. The Tam o’Shanter being 1 mile on our weather beam. P.M. Fresh breezes & fine. 8. Tacked, about 1 mile from the [...]

[ Read the full journal for: Sunday 31 July 1836 ]


Monday 1 August 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Another heavy gale from the S.W. which forced us back a second time to St Helen’s, where we shall now probably remain till a decided change in the weather takes place.

[ Read the full journal for: Monday 1 August 1836 ]


Monday 1 August 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

August 1. Fresh breezes & cloudy from West to S.W. Made no progress during the night, Tam o’Shanter in Co. P.M. Fresh breezes with rain. 2. Bore up for St Helen’s roads. 5. Saw the land. 7.30. Anchored in St Helen’s roads. Light airs.

[ Read the full journal for: Monday 1 August 1836 ]


Tuesday 2 August 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Fresh breezes & fine. West. Recd fresh beef & provisions. The Water tank came. A party of us rowed the ladies in the cutter to the Isle of Wight. Took a walk, & afterwards (19 of us) took refreshment at the house of the brother of Mr Fisher (Col. Com.) then took another walk afterwards [...]

[ Read the full journal for: Tuesday 2 August 1836 ]


Wednesday 3 August 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Left St Helen’s this morning once more, with a favorable breeze, which looks likely to take us clear of the Channel. A good deal of motion. The ladies and most of the gentlemen suffering from the mal de mer. The emigrants also in no very savoury condition, but bearing their lot upon the whole with [...]

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Wednesday 3 August 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Moderate breezes & fine from S.E. At 5, we weighed & beat out of the roads of St Helen’s. At 10, having weathered St Catherine’s point, we kept away & set topmast & tgt studg sails. P.M. light winds & fine. Wind drew forward to Westly. Braced sharp up on larbd tack. 8. Tacked off [...]

[ Read the full journal for: Wednesday 3 August 1836 ]


Thursday 4 August 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

The second No of the Buffalo Telegraph
today. A dead failure. Scarcely a redeeming point
of intelligence or wit.  Scraps from young ladies’
Books of useful information or memorable sayings, compiled by individuals. They were often hand-written, but could also include pasted extracts – hence scrap books. common place books do not become original by
being fairly copied into a sheet of foolscap

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Thursday 4 August 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Close hauled on larbd tack, wind W.b S. Saw the land at 8 on the lee beam. Drizzly occasionally Calm during the middle of the day, off the coast of Dorsetshire. About 7 P.M. a light air sprung up from the N.E. At 10, the light of Portland bore East, about 12 miles. Midt. Light [...]

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Friday 5 August 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

For the last three days the
Emigrants deck has been in a most offensive
state – so much so that it was impossible to
pass along without fingers to the nostril. To cleanse
it at last, became a matter of absolute necessity,
and this has accordingly been done to-day with
bleaching powder chloride of lime and plenty of seawater. I had
some difficulty before leaving St Helen’s in procuring
a number of cats to be sent on shore. They were
very numerous and had crept under the berths
of the emigrants, which is the main cause of the
horrid effluvia now existing. Cats are probably
valuable in the colony, but whoever takes them
out should be obliged to keep them sweet and
clean and confined to a hutch during the
voyage.

[ Read the full journal for: Friday 5 August 1836 ]


Friday 5 August 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Light airs & cloudy, N.E. All sail set. Shewed
our Number to the The Channel Squadron of the Royal Navy was first stationed in the English Channel in 1690 to defend Britain against the French Navy. Channel Squadron (6 sail of line)
Noon. Almost calm & fine. Aired the emigrants’ bedding &c.
& inspected them for This might refer to bed bugs, fleas, lice, or all three. Scabies was also often referred to as ‘the itch’, but the mites which cause it are microscopic and unlikely to be found by inspection of bedding. the itch – a few cases only. P.M. A light
breeze from the Northward. Attended concert in the cabin.

[ Read the full journal for: Friday 5 August 1836 ]


Saturday 6 August 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Light winds, North. Rather fine weather. Set lower studg sail. Noon. Lat. 49E27′ N. Long. 6E12′ Wt 69 miles run since Noon yesterday, which added to 200 miles run from Isle of Wight, makes 269. P.M. Cloudy, light winds from N.E. Spoke a Spanish brig. 10. Light winds and rainy.

[ Read the full journal for: Saturday 6 August 1836 ]


Sunday 7 August 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Sunday August 7. Proceeding favorably; but a dreadful sea rolling for the last two days. This morning it abated sufficiently to enable us to have divine service performed for the first time. Mr Howard preached a somewhat appropriate discourse with great attention and decorum. The governor had a severe sprain of the Ancle to day. [...]

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Sunday 7 August 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Sunday, Augt 7. Moderate winds & cloudy. All sail set before the wind. Steering W.S.W. 10. Mustered Ship’s company by Divisions, after which the Revd C. Howard read prayers & preached a very excellent, appropriate & feeling sermon. Noon. Do Wr. Miles run 269 + 107 = 376. Lat. 40E11′ No. Long. 8E14′ Wt. P.M. [...]

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Monday 8 August 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

The party getting a little over
sea sickness and more at home with each other.
There is an indifferent piano in the after Cabin,
and this evening we had what was called a literally a musical evening or concert. soirée
musicale
. Somewhat of a punishment. We have
bid farewell to good music for sometime; and
besides there are certain airs associated with
being of so different a stamp from any we are
likely to meet again that it is painful to be obliged
to listen to them. The Ladies getting over the disagreeables
which tho’ unavoidable in any Ship have, it is to be
regretted, been very much & unnecessarily multiplied
in the Buffalo. It does require some physical strength
as well as moral courage to endure the annoyances in-
-separable from a sea voyage; and to the unaccustomed ears of
ladies who have never left the comforts of their own homes
the creaking bulkheads, slamming of doors, tumbling
and bumping of chairs and other moveables, to say
nothing of the compound of villainous sounds & smells
common to ship board, these inconveniences at first seem
insupportable. But a little time & patience and they
become less frequently thought of & less severely felt.

[ Read the full journal for: Monday 8 August 1836 ]


Monday 8 August 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Monday, Augt 8. Fresh breezes & cloudy. Wind E.N.E. Steering W.S.W. All sail set. Saw Mother Carey’s chickens (Stormy Peterel) Noon. Do Wr. Going 7 knots. Miles run 376 + 110 = 486. Lat. 47E30′ No. Longe 9E59′ W. P.M. Fresh breezes & fine. 10. Shortened sail.

[ Read the full journal for: Monday 8 August 1836 ]


Tuesday 9 August 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Tuesday, August 9th, 1836. Fresh breezes & fine from N.E. Steering S.W.b W. Set lower topmast & tgt studg sails. A large Ship in sight. Noon. Do Wr. Miles run, 486 + 165 = 651. Lat. 44E15′ North. Longe 12E00′ West. P.M. Fresh breezes & fine. Shortened sail.

[ Read the full journal for: Tuesday 9 August 1836 ]


Wednesday 10 August 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Wednesday, Augt 10. Fresh breezes & fine. Cloudy occly. Set studg sails. Passed three vessels during the day; exchanged colours with an English schooner. Noon. Do Wr. Miles run, 651 + 171 = 822′. Lat. 41E37′ No. Longe 13E36′ Wt. Steering S.W. Wind N.E. P.M. Do Wr. Car- -ried away the starbd fore topmt studg [...]

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Thursday 11 August 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Thursday, Augt 11. Fresh breezes and fine wr. Steering S.W. Wind N.E. Noon. Do Wr. Miles run, 822 + 168 = 990′. Lat. 38E57′ No. Longe 14E57′ Wt. P.M. The wind more moderate. Set the mainsail before the wind, having clewed up the foresail: found the Ship steer better. Evening. Wind N.b E. Set foresail, [...]

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Friday 12 August 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Friday, Augt 12. Moderate breezes & fine. Steering S.W. Wind N.N.E. A large Ship in Co. Fitted a private bathing place for the use of the children. Noon. Light winds. Late 36E57′ No. Long.15E52 Wt. Miles run, 990 + 120 = 1110. P.M. Wind N.N.W. Trimmed sails.

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Saturday 13 August 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Saturday, Augt 13. Light winds & fine. West. Close hauled. 3 Sail in sight.
Noon. Do Wr. Miles run, 1110 + 76 = 1186. Late 35E33′ No. Longe 16E26′ W.
Hove to, to pick up a beam of deal, covered in barnacles. Having obtain-
-ed permission, I leaped overboard in my clothes, & swam toward
the boat: some of my companions called out that a shark was
following me, so I got astride of the log, where the fish follow-
-ed me, but proved to be a few dolphins, attracted by the le-
-pas on the wood: after scraping them off, it was hoisted in.
P.M. Fine weather & light winds. Steering S.W. People very merry.

[ Read the full journal for: Saturday 13 August 1836 ]


Saturday 13 August 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Saturday August 13. Progressing for some days very steadily; about 200 miles from Madeira. Picked up a log of American pine which seemed to have been very long at sea from the immense number of Barnacles adhering to it, the wood however was perfectly sound. A visit from a shoal of dolphins to day, they [...]

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Sunday 14 August 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

A very good sermon today from
Mr Howard. A Sunday school established by him he has
asked one of the Miss Hindmarshes & Mr Wm Malcolm to
assist, and it is to be hoped that it will go on and prosper.
But what can fairly be expected from an hour’s
reading in a Sunday School! There are about 50 children
on board who run wild all the week. We would gladly
devote time daily to their instruction, but the chaplain
evidently considers this would be interfering with his
especial province. There seems no disposition on the part
of the Governor to promote any sort of education whatever
among them during the voyage. It is very grievous to
see all this, but we cannot remedy it. Broadbent
and Cock among the emigrants are not neglecting
their poor children, but their exemplary conduct has
not been generally followed, neither has it attracted
any attention or commendation from those quarters
where it ought to have found both.

[ Read the full journal for: Sunday 14 August 1836 ]


Sunday 14 August 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Light winds & fine. Several sail in sight. This day
I attained the age of 30 years: therefore cease to be a young man
an awful & painful reflection, being still a bachelor, & likely to con-
tinue so for some time. Prayers & sermon by the Revd C. Howard.
Noon. Do Wr. Lat. 34E24′ No. Longe 17E7′ Wt. Miles run 1186 + 59 = 1245′.
P.M. Do Wr. Passed all the emigrants in review for inspection.
Established classes for Sunday reading among their children.

[ Read the full journal for: Sunday 14 August 1836 ]


Monday 15 August 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Madeira distant about 20 miles white cottages and green patches visible, the green supposed to be vineyards. Oh for a bunch or two of the fresh ripe grapes!

[ Read the full journal for: Monday 15 August 1836 ]


Monday 15 August 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Anniversary of passing of So Australian Bill. Light variable winds & fine. Laying about S.W. Noon. Do Wr. Saw Madeira ahead. Miles run, 1245 + 57 = 1302. P.M. Lat. 33E23′ No. Longe – . 6.30. Not being able to weather the West- -ern point of Madeira, & the wind falling very light, we attemp- [...]

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Tuesday 16 August 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Light variable airs & fine wr. Found that owing to the variable airs, & perhaps a current, we had been losing ground during the night. Madeira bore S.E. 12 miles. 8. Tacked, & stood in. Noon. Do Wr. Lat. 32E44′ No. Long. 17E58′ Wt. Miles run, 1302 + 60 = 1362. P.M. Wind South. Tacked, [...]

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Wednesday 17 August 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Moderate & fine wr. Wind S.E. Steering S.S.W. Set top- -               mast & tgt studg sails. Passed a Hanoverian Ketch. Noon. Do Wr. Miles run, 1362 + 100 = 1462. Lat. 31E13′ No. Long. 18E 33′ Wt. P.M. Mode & fine. Saw the first shoal of flying-fish. Midnight. East & squall. In studg sails and [...]

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Thursday 18 August 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Moderate & hazy. East. Steering S.S.W. Set                  royals & studg sails. Noon. Do Wr. Miles run 1462 + 126 = 1588. Lat. 29E10′ Nt. Long. 19E00′ Wt. P.M. Mode & hazy, like a trade wind, N.E. All sail set before the wind, & going 8 knots. !!!!!!!!!!!

[ Read the full journal for: Thursday 18 August 1836 ]


Friday 19 August 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

After much deliberation it was formally
determined a few days ago to touch at St Jago, one of the
Canaries, but today the Captain has cooled upon it and
his firmly fixed intention has fairly evaporated – so it
happens every day. The poor man does not know his own
mind for two hours together. This is a sad failing for one
in authority to be overpowered with.

[ Read the full journal for: Friday 19 August 1836 ]


Friday 19 August 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Moderate & hazy wr. Wind N.E. Steering S.W. All sail                  set both sides. Plenty of flying-fish to be seen. Miles run, 140 + 1558 = 1728. Lat. 27E11′ No. Longe 20E2′ Wt. P.M. Fresh breezy & cloudy. 8. Do Wr. Going along quietly & steadily.

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Saturday 20 August 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Moderate & hazy wr. Wind N.N.E. Course, S.W. All sail set. Empd scrubbing clothes &c. Miles run, 747 + 1720 = 1875. Lat. 24E54′ No. Longe 21E18′ Wt. P.M. Fresh breezes & hazy. Wind North. 8. Do Wr. 10. In royals & topgt studg sails.

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Sunday 21 August 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Entered the tropic of Cancer. A fine trade wind carrying us steadily onward. Service to-day. The Sermon, professing to prove the efficacy of faith and the inutility of good works to salvation, did neither. Our worthy Chaplain carefully eluded both points; and vapid common places were all we got on the occasion.

[ Read the full journal for: Sunday 21 August 1836 ]


Sunday 21 August 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Moderate wind & hazy wr. Wind North. Steering
S.W.b W. All sail set. Divine Service – prayers, singing, &
a sermon by Revd C. Howard. Noon. Miles run 164 + 1875 = 2039.
P.M. Latitude is the distance of a point north or south of the equator as measured in degrees. The poles are at 90 degrees north and south. Lat.  22E34′ No. Longitude is the distance, measured in degrees, of the meridian on which a point lies to the meridian of Greenwich. On the other side of the earth to Greenwich is a point with a longitude of both 180 degrees east and 180 degrees west. Longe  22E45′ Wt. 8. Do Wr. {Sunday schools}
First issue of limejuice today, ½ oz. per person, per day per diem, per caput.

[ Read the full journal for: Sunday 21 August 1836 ]


Monday 22 August 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Moderate breezes & hazy weather. Wind N.E. Course S.W.b W. All sail set. Scrubbed hammocks & washed clothes. Noon. Do Wr. Miles run, 135 + 2039 = 2174. Lat. 20E51′ No. Longe 24E3′ Wt. P.M. Mode & hazy wr. A flying-fish flew on board & was taken prisoner, & proved an acceptable meal to Mrs [...]

[ Read the full journal for: Monday 22 August 1836 ]


Tuesday 23 August 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Moderate wind & hazy wr. Wind East. Course S.W.b W. All sail set. Dried bedding. Caught another flying-fish, which was disposed of, in a similar manner to its predeces- -sor. Noon. Light winds. Miles run, 97 + 2174 = 2271. Lat. 19E 32′ No. Longe 25E15′ Wt. P.M. Modte & fine. Midt. Very fine.

[ Read the full journal for: Tuesday 23 August 1836 ]


Wednesday 24 August 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Modte wind & hazy wr. Wind East. Course S.S.W. All sail set. All awnings spread. Shoals of flying-fish all day. Noon. Miles run, 103 + 2271 = 2374. Lat. 17E46′ No. Long. 25E50′ Wt. P.M. Modte & fine. 8. Do Wr. All night on deck.

[ Read the full journal for: Wednesday 24 August 1836 ]


Thursday 25 August 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Moderate & fine wr. Thermometer 82E in cabin. Course S.S.W. Wind East. All sail set. Miles run, 124 + 2374 = 2498. Lat. 15E40′ No. Longe 26E4′ Wt. Noon. Light winds. P.M. Do Wr. Caught a young dolphin. A Ship in company. Midnight. A large Ship ranged up on our lee quarter, & proved to [...]

[ Read the full journal for: Thursday 25 August 1836 ]


Friday 26 August 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Modte & fine wr. Course South. Wind East. A Ship in Co. All sail set. Noon. Do Wr. Miles run 102 + 2490 = 2600. Lat. 13E43′ No. Longe 25E40′ W. P.M. Do Wr. Passed a Dutch barque.

[ Read the full journal for: Friday 26 August 1836 ]


Saturday 27 August 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Modte & fine. Course South. Wind East. All sail set. Noon. Do Wr. Miles run, 97 + 2600 = 2697. Late 12E6′ No. Long. 25E16′. P.M. Do Wr. at 10, the wind drew round North, & at midnight N.W. with rain, trimd on starbd tack.

[ Read the full journal for: Saturday 27 August 1836 ]


Sunday 28 August 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

… For Service to-day
had substituted the Articles of War. Surely in the lazy
listlessness of existence at sea there might have been
sufficient time for both – if indeed reading the Mutiny
Act be at all a fitting employment for the day. No
Sunday School. So we thought it would be. What the
plea is we know not. But all this is exceedingly un-
-satisfactory. There are no school books on board to give
to the Emigrants’ children – an unhappy oversight, for
they might have been advantageously instructed during
these long and sleepy days. It will be important to see
that in all future emigrant Ships a person in some
degree qualified to act as Schoolmaster, be sent out.
Next to the Surgeon he would be the most useful person
in the vessel.

[ Read the full journal for: Sunday 28 August 1836 ]


Sunday 28 August 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Sunday, Augt 28. Heavy rain, Wind West. Course South.
Mustered the crew & emigrants, & read the The regulations which govern the behaviour of members of the Royal Navy. Articles of war (by the Governor). Lowered the topsails in squalls.
Took in one reef. Noon. Miles run 89 + 2697 = 2786.
Late 10E43′ No. Longe 25E. P.M. Modte with rain. People very
busy catching water in various vessels, water being
scarcer yesterday than brandy or wine: that is to
say that I could get brandy or wine to drink, easier than
water. In 2d reefs of topsails, down royal yards. Rainy.

[ Read the full journal for: Sunday 28 August 1836 ]


Monday 29 August 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Monday, Augt 29. Modte & fine wr. Empd washing clothes. A heavy swell from S.W. Wind S.W. Head S.S.E. Miles run, 78 + 2786 = 2864. Lat. 9E54′ No. Longe 23E33′ Wt. P.M. Do Wr. Sunset. Cloudy with lightning.

[ Read the full journal for: Monday 29 August 1836 ]


Tuesday 30 August 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Tuesday August 30 Wind fair but the weather unsettled,
the atmosphere heavily charged with electricity. A poor
sailor died this afternoon of tuberculosis consumption. He was perfectly
sensible to his latest hour, and spoke of his death with the
calmness and the hope of a Christian. He was ordered to
be buried in the evening, and accordingly by torch light
his body was committed to the deep. Mr Howard read the
prayers of the Church, the crew was silent and attentive, and
the poor fellow’s mess-mate who had nursed him throughout the
whole period of his illness, shewed by his sobbing and tears
that a sailor can feel like a man.

[ Read the full journal for: Tuesday 30 August 1836 ]


Tuesday 30 August 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Tuesday, Augt 30th. Vble weather & wind. rain occasionally. Steering S.S.E. Wind West. One of the seamen, who had been sinking for some time, died this forenoon. Noon. Cloudy with light variable winds. Miles run, 88 + 2864 = 2952. Late 8E40′ No. Longe 22E28′ Wt. P.M. Light variable airs. 6. Buried the corpse of [...]

[ Read the full journal for: Tuesday 30 August 1836 ]


Wednesday 31 August 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Wednesday August 30. [sic] Four weeks at sea this day. We have now made nearly three thousand miles in latitude exclusive of about seventeen degrees of west longitude; so that upon the whole the clumsy old ship has done pretty well. But the system of sailing adopted on board by the express order of the [...]

[ Read the full journal for: Wednesday 31 August 1836 ]


Wednesday 31 August 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Wednesday, Augt 31. Moderate & cloudy. wind SW. Head SSE. Miles run, 62 + 2952 = 3014. Noon. Mode & cloudy. Lat. 7E50′ No. Longe 21E58′ Wt. P.M. A sail on the weather bow. 6. Shortened sail, wind freshened from the S.S.W.

[ Read the full journal for: Wednesday 31 August 1836 ]


Thursday 1 September 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Thursday September 1. A foul wind with a heavy swell
from the South; we are now in the region of what sailors
call “winds which frequently shift from one direction to another baffling winds ” and must be content to endure what
we cannot avoid. The Emigrants have expressed some
dissatisfaction on the substitution of cocoa for tea, and
in fact are not, upon the whole, made so comfortable as it
would be for the interest of the colony that they should
have been. I have exerted my influence with several
of them, and they consent to bear the disagreeables as well
as they can. Let full justice be done to the body of
Emigrants on board this ship; they have suffered without
much murmuring, though they have had several sufficient
causes for complaint. They have no place where they can
walk or breathe unpolluted air; the Sides of a ship raised above deck level to protect objects and crew. bulwarks of the
Buffalo are six feet high; on both sides of the main
deck are rows of filthy hogs kept in pens, generally in
a horrid state of dirt and uncleanness. The Emigrants
can only walk alongside of these animals and inhale
the stench from them: they are forbidden either side of the The quareterdeck was the deck between the main mast and the back of the ship. quarter-deck although the officers and passengers have the Technically called a stern deck, the poop is an exposed partial deck on the stern (rear) of a ship. It forms the roof of the stern or ‘poop’ cabin. poop or what remains of it unoccupied by hay trusses
& hen-coops to themselves. These things make a deep
and ineffaceable impression on the individuals most
directly affected by their operation, and will tell
eventually. It has been a grand and radical error to
send out the Governor of South Australia in the invidious
and arbitrary character of Captain of the Ship: the
consequences of this act must be severely felt by him
if they be not in their result highly detrimental to the
colony. Common people have difficulty in separating
the acts of the Captain from those of the Governor, and
the trifling doings of the one are not likely to increase
respect when they shall be merged in the more important
functions of the other. A voyage like this calls for the
exercise of more philosophy than falls to the common lot
A reference to the teachings of Greek philosopher Zeno. Zeno was never at sea in an Emigrant ship.

[ Read the full journal for: Thursday 1 September 1836 ]


Thursday 1 September 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Thursday, September 1. Moderate & cloudy. Wind S.S.W. Head S.E. Miles run, 97 + 3014 = 3111. Noon. Modte & fine. Lat. 7E19′ No. Longe 20E10′ Wt. P.M. Do Wr.

[ Read the full journal for: Thursday 1 September 1836 ]


Friday 2 September 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Friday, Septr 2. Moderate breezes & cloudy. Wind S.W. Head S.S.E. Miles run 88 + 3111 = 3199. Noon. Late 6E51′ No. Longe 19E 13′ Wt. P.M. 4. Do Wr. Tacked, wind, SW. 8. Modte & squally occly.

[ Read the full journal for: Friday 2 September 1836 ]


Saturday 3 September 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Saturday, Sept 3. Modte & squally, rain at times. Wind SW, & Head W.N.W. Miles run, 89 + 3111 = 3200. Noon. Do Wr. Lat.7E12′ No. Long. 19E13′ Wt so that we had lost 20 miles during the 24 hours. P.M. Squally with rain. Four sail in sight on a wind.

[ Read the full journal for: Saturday 3 September 1836 ]


Sunday 4 September 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Sunday, Septr 4. Modte & cloudy. 8. Tacked to the S.Ed. Wind S.S.W. Performed Divine Service, by Revd C. Howard. Noon. Do Wr. Miles run, 81 + 3200 = 3281. Lat. 7E33′ No. Longe 19E48′ Wst So that we lost 21 miles since Noon yesterday. P.M. Modte & fine. Head S.S.E. Wind S.W. 8. Do [...]

[ Read the full journal for: Sunday 4 September 1836 ]


Monday 5 September 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Monday September 5. To-day the wind became more favorable, but for a few hours only, and our spirits have just been excited at the idea of making some progress to be depressed again at finding the ship tumbling about to its old tune. The weather is amazingly cool, since the beginning of the month the [...]

[ Read the full journal for: Monday 5 September 1836 ]


Monday 5 September 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Monday, Septr 5. Modte & fine. Scrubbed hammocks & clothes.
Head S.b E. Wind S.W.b W. Out all reefs of the topsails.
Noon. Do Wr. Miles run, 87 + 3281 = 3368. Late 6E27′ No. Longe 18E
29′ Wt. The dog “Lion” fell overboard from the forechains, and
was a long way astern before he was discovered: tacked to
pick him up; lowered a boat for the purpose: no worse.
P.M. Do Wr. 8. Modte & cloudy. Midnight. Do Wr.

[ Read the full journal for: Monday 5 September 1836 ]


Tuesday 6 September 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Tuesday, Septr 6. Moderate & fine. A little rain occasionally. Wind S.W. Head S.S.E. Noon. Do Wr. Miles run 103 + 3368 = 3471. Late 5E00′ No. Longe 17E. P.M. Do Wr. Sunset. Beat to Quarters, & in 2d reefs of the topsails. Squally at times.

[ Read the full journal for: Tuesday 6 September 1836 ]


Wednesday 7 September 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Wednesday, Septr 7. Modte & fine. Wind S.W.b S. Head S.E.b S. Noon. Do Wr. Miles run, 104 + 3471 = 3575. Lat. 4E3′ No. Longe 15E. P.M. 2.30. Tacked, having fallen off to E.S.E. Passed a Dutch brig to leeward, which we passed to windward 5 or 6 days since. Head W.b S. Sunset. [...]

[ Read the full journal for: Wednesday 7 September 1836 ]


Thursday 8 September 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Thursday, Septr 8. Modte & fine. Wind S.S.W. Tacked. Head S.E. Miles run, 97 + 3575 = 3672. Lat. 3E51′ No. Longe 16E28′ Wt. P.M. Do Wr. A dutch brig in Co. Also a Ship to leeward. Sunset. In 1st reefs of the topsails. Midnight. Light winds & fine.

[ Read the full journal for: Thursday 8 September 1836 ]


Friday 9 September 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Friday, Septr 9. Moderate breezes & fine. An American barque to leeward. Head S.E.b E. Wind S.b W. Miles run, 84 + 3672 = 3756. Late 3E50′ No. Longe [...] One mile nearer the line than yesterday. P.M. Light winds & fine. In 2d reefs.

[ Read the full journal for: Friday 9 September 1836 ]


Saturday 10 September 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Saturday, Septr 10. Modte & hazy wr. Head S.E. Wind S.S.W. Washed lower deck, & got up the emigrants’ luggage. Noon. Do Wr. No observation of the Sun. Miles run 73 + 3756 = 3829. Lat. D.R. 3E22′ N. Longe 13E40′ W. P.M. Moderate and hazy. Sunset. Mustered at Quarters, & in 1st & 2d [...]

[ Read the full journal for: Saturday 10 September 1836 ]


Sunday 11 September 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Sunday, Septr 11. Modte & squally, rain at times. Head S.E. Wind S.S.W. The weather prevented the performance of Divine Service. Noon. Do Wr. Miles run, 80 +3829 = 3917. Late 2E49′ No. Longe 12E10′ Wt. P.M. Fresh breezes & cloudy. 5. Wore Ship. Head W.b N.

[ Read the full journal for: Sunday 11 September 1836 ]


Monday 12 September 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Monday, Septr 12th. Moderate & cloudy wr. Head W.b N. Wind S.W.b S. Washed clothes. Miles run 111 +3917 = 4028. Lat. 2E40′ North. Longe 12E33′ Wt. P.M. Modte & cloudy. making very little progress.

[ Read the full journal for: Monday 12 September 1836 ]


Tuesday 13 September 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Tuesday September 13. This morning the south east trade
wind reached us and we are now within 100 miles of the equator.
A conversation with the Governor, Mr Fisher, & Mr Jickling
to-day on the subject of the establishment of a Public
Library in the Colony, regarding which both Mr Fisher and
myself are exceedingly anxious. The governor is inclined
to throw cold water on our project. “It is of no use,” said he,
“what good will books do our Colony?” but I strongly
suspect neither Fisher nor myself will be deterred from
doing our conscientious duty by such an opinion. The
ship continues to be made a carpenter’s shop, – hot-houses
dog-houses and other sorts of houses for the Captain
are in progress, and there is from morning to night such a
complication of noises, hammering, sawing, planing,
that the Ladies & passengers and Emigrants generally
suffer dreadfully from these various annoyances.
Little regard indeed is paid to their comfort at any
time: poor Mrs Fisher has the carpenter’s shop precisely over
her bed, while that part of the Technically called a stern deck, the poop is an exposed partial deck on the stern (rear) of a ship. It forms the roof of the stern or ‘poop’ cabin. poop under which are the
cabins of the Governor’s family is carefully secured from
noise by being covered with trusses of hay. The Governor’s
dogs are allowed to run loose, bite, as they have done, the
Emigrants & crew at their pleasure, and to perform all
manner of beastlinesses where they have a mind; while
the dogs of the passengers are sedulously cooped up.
In a man-of-war it seems the Captain’s property and
chattels are always especially attended to; those belonging
to others must take their chance – that is the rule. It is
a pity Governor Hindmarsh should act upon it. Public
respect & popularity are not usually acquired by decided
acts of selfishness.

[ Read the full journal for: Tuesday 13 September 1836 ]


Tuesday 13 September 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Tuesday, Septr 13. Modte & fine. Head W.S.W. Wind South. Aired the bedding. The gentlemen emigrants were subjected to their first military training. Noon. Do Wr. Miles run, 108 + 4028 = 4136. Late 2E28′ No. Long 15E25′ Wt. Commenced to drill the emigrant labourers. 6. Quadrilles on the quarter-deck.

[ Read the full journal for: Tuesday 13 September 1836 ]


Wednesday 14 September 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Wednesday Sept. 14. Today it was ordered by the Governor that
the Emigrants should be instructed in the manual exercise.
In order that no objection should be made, the Gentlemen
passengers were first asked to A military exercise in rifle handling. drill , and they agreed to
do so with great good nature. The Emigrants were then
paraded and went through their exercise very respectably
for a first attempt. They are to be A military exercise in rifle handling. drilled regularly by
the corporal of Marines until they are perfectly au fait.
That an armed body should exist for the enforcement of
the laws in the event of popular or individual resist-
-ance may perhaps be necessary, but the idea which
appears to exist in some quarters, that they are required
as a means of defence or aggression against the natives
cannot be too soon repudiated. A hostile shot shall never
be fired against them if I can help it either by pen
or print; the proper force after all, would be a small
body of regular soldiers say 25 or 30, to be paid by the
Colony, and liable to do the requisite duty.

[ Read the full journal for: Wednesday 14 September 1836 ]


Wednesday 14 September 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Wednesday, Septr 14. Modte & fine wr. Wind S.S.E. Head S.W. Miles run, 92 + 4136 = 4228. Noon. Do Wr. P.M. Mode & fine. Late 1E40′ No. Longe 16E46′. Sunset. In 1st reefs of topsails. 10. Small rain.

[ Read the full journal for: Wednesday 14 September 1836 ]


Thursday 15 September 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Thursday September 15. Crossed the line this afternoon
thermometer at 74. In the evening the ship was hailed
by Neptune, who announced his intention of paying us
a visit on the morrow. The Water sprite then burned his
blue light, sent up his rocket, and sailed gaily away in
his lighted car. Great preparations are making for the
Saturnalia, and amusing pictures are drawn by those
who have undergone the process of lathering shaving and
ducking for the comfort and edification of the uninitiated.

[ Read the full journal for: Thursday 15 September 1836 ]


Thursday 15 September 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Thursday, Septr 15th. Moderate & fine. Wind S.S.E. Head S.W. Miles run, 102 + 4228 = 4330. Noon. Do Wr. Lat. 0E21′ No. Longe 17E50′ Wt. 6. Quadrilles & country dances on the quarter-deck. At 7.30. The approach of Neptune being notified by the man look- -ing out on the forecastle, the mizen topsail was [...]

[ Read the full journal for: Thursday 15 September 1836 ]


Friday 16 September 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Friday Sepr 16 Gloom seems to be daily becoming more
the natural element of the Buffalo. In place of the
mirth which last evening promised us, a most a gloomy state of mind. melancholy
crossing the line we have had. One of the sailors a young
man named Story, the only support of a widowed mother,
fell overboard last night while heaving the lead, The action or process of measuring the depth of water with a sounding line, a line marked at intervals of fathoms and weighted at one end. A fathom is a unit of length equal to 6 feet (1.83 metres). sounding
for a shoal marked in the Admiralty Charts but which is in
fact generally believed not to exist. He was missed in a few
minutes after the accident had taken place, and a boat
was lowered, but he was lost. To add to the misery of his
fate the poor fellow was an excellent swimmer, and
most probably suffered a horrible & lingering death. It
seems astonishing that the readiest and most efficient
means of salvation in such cases should not have been thought
of, and that the life buoy was not let go: it is provided with
a light and he might have seen it and swam to it, while
he could not see the boat. Since this accident the Sentry on
the poop has received orders to slip the life buoy at the cry
of “a man overboard”, without waiting for orders from the
officer of the watch. This might have been done before,
it may however yet be useful.

[ Read the full journal for: Friday 16 September 1836 ]


Friday 16 September 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Friday. Septr 16. Moderate & fine. At 3, a sailor heaving the lead in the main chains, fell overboard, & it was some time before he was missed; the ship was then hove to, & a boat lowered to look for him; but although a good swimmer, he could not be found: blue-lights & muskets [...]

[ Read the full journal for: Friday 16 September 1836 ]


Saturday 17 September 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Saturday, Septr 17. Moderate & rainy. 7. Wind S.E. Head S.W. 8. Mode & fine. Set ftmstudg sail, flyg jib & royals. Noon. Do Wr. Miles run, 111 + 4436 = 4547. Late 2E20′ So. Longe 20E20′ Wt. Wind S.E. b S. In ftmstudg sail. Sunset. In 2d reefs of topsails. Fair wind.

[ Read the full journal for: Saturday 17 September 1836 ]


Sunday 18 September 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

The Sunday School again commenced, but there is
a luke warmness upon the subject which is truly lamentable.
It is however impossible to interfere. Education, and the
religious instruction of the young are unhappily not regarded
by those in the highest places as of paramount importance
to good government or the social well-being of our colonists.
Mr Fisher and I deriving some consolation from the reflection that
on the Legislative Council more than any one individual,
and on the right direction of public opinion by means of the
press, will depend the due developement of its energies and
the administration of impartial and well digested
laws. It would indeed be a matter of lasting regret if the good
intentions of the supporters of the Colony should either not have
fair play, or be thwarted by the wrong-sighted obstinacy
of Captain Hindmarsh, who, whatever may be the amount
of honest purpose in his profession, is, (I deeply regret to perceive
it, but the truth must be spoken) daily displaying capabilities
for any thing but the science of discreet government.

[ Read the full journal for: Sunday 18 September 1836 ]


Sunday 18 September 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Sunday, Septr 18. Mode & squally. In tgt sails. Set Do. 10. Fine. Performed Divine Service. Noon. Do Wr. Miles run, 116 + 4547=4663. Lat. 4E00′ So. Longe 21E31′ Wt. P.M. Mode & drizzly occasionally. Saw a large shark. Sunset. In 2d reefs of topsls.

[ Read the full journal for: Sunday 18 September 1836 ]


Monday 19 September 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Monday, Septr 19. Modte weather, squally at times. Rose at 5, & saw
the Southern Cross for the first time since 1824. Wind
S.E. Head S.W.b S. Noon. Moderate & fine. Miles run 125 + 4663
= 4788. Late obs. 5E50′ So. Longe 6E. A A dance performed by four couples. It became popular in England after 1813. quadrille on the The quarter deck was the deck between the main mast and the back of the ship. quarter deck .

[ Read the full journal for: Monday 19 September 1836 ]


Tuesday 20 September 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Tuesday, Septr 20. Moderate, & squally occasionally. Busy A military exercise in rifle handling. drilling
the labouring emigrants in the use of the A muzzle-loaded, smooth bore long gun, fired from the shoulder. musket .
Noon. Fine weather. Miles run, 132 + 4788 = 4920. Lat. 7E48′ South
Longe 23E58′ Wt. P.M. Do Wr. Wind S.E. Ship’s head, S.W.b S.
Fine moonlight night. A dance performed by four couples. It became popular in England after 1813. Quadrilles & country dances on deck.

[ Read the full journal for: Tuesday 20 September 1836 ]


Wednesday 21 September 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Wednesday Sepr 21. A fine breeze from the South East, steering direct for Cape Frio,distant about 1100 miles. Our water will barely last us so far although there is an evident inclination on the part of the Governor to prefer the Cape. There is however no sufficient reason given for the preference, or for running [...]

[ Read the full journal for: Wednesday 21 September 1836 ]


Wednesday 21 September 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Wednesday, Septr 21. Modte & squally. Found all the bees in the hive
dead. A bed of finely-powdered earth having been prepared
& manured in a box, was sown with peach, apricot, almond, &
grape seeds, some soaked & others not; some in the shell, & some
out of it: it was then closed up tight, light being admitted.
(they all failed.)

[ Read the full journal for: Wednesday 21 September 1836 ]


Thursday 22 September 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Thursday, Septr 22. Moderate & fine. Out all reefs, set royals & tgt studg sails. Noon. Do Wr. Miles run, 134 + 5054 = 5188. Late 11E17′ So. Longe 26E26′ Wt. P.M. Do Wr. Wind S.E. Head S.W.b S.

[ Read the full journal for: Thursday 22 September 1836 ]


Friday 23 September 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Friday, Septr 23. Modte & fine. Course, S.W.b S. At 7. Wind came East, out all reefs, set royals & tgt studg sails. 8.30. In royals. Washed clothes. Noon. Do Wr. Light winds. Miles run, 145 + 5188= = 5333. Lat. 13E21′ So. Longe 27E30′ West. P.M. Light winds. Sunset. In 1st reefs, royals, & [...]

[ Read the full journal for: Friday 23 September 1836 ]


Saturday 24 September 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Saturday Sepr 24. We have been making excellent way for
some days, and in the full hope of reaching Rio by Wednesday
or Thursday; but an announcement from the Captain to-day
that he has now determined to go to the Cape instead of to
Rio Janeiro has thrown us all aback once more. Never was
such an act of imprudence attempted; it can only be character-
-ized as sheer folly. Our course is now altered and we are to
be put on short allowance of water. This news has created
great dismay and the poor Governor’s popularity has fallen
below zero with every body. It is absolutely distressing to all
true friends of the Colony to witness such pranks. We must
go to Rio, for there is not water to take us to the Cape, even
on short allowance. The officers of the ship to-day are making
wry faces and exchanging most significant looks and
shrugs: No wonder!

[ Read the full journal for: Saturday 24 September 1836 ]


Saturday 24 September 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Saturday, Septr 24th. Moderate & fine. Course So. Wind E.b S. Set roy- -als. Washed lower deck. Noon. Do Wr. Miles run, 120 + 5333 = 5453. Late 15E21′ So. Longe 28E12′ Wt. P.M. Fine wr.

[ Read the full journal for: Saturday 24 September 1836 ]


Sunday 25 September 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Sunday, Septr 25th. Moderate breezes & fine wr. Course So. Wind E.b S. Revd C. Howard read prayers & preached after Muster by Divisions. Noon. Do Wr. Miles run, 124 + 5453 = 5577. Lat.17E21′ So. Longe 28E14′ Wt. P.M. Do Wr.

[ Read the full journal for: Sunday 25 September 1836 ]


Monday 26 September 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Monday, Septr 26. Moderate & fine. Course S.S.E. Wind E.b N.
Very busy drilling both labourers & their masters.
A dozen little pigs born last night, eleven doing well.
Noon. Miles run, 124 + 5577 = 5701. Lat. 19E13′ South.
Longe Rio Janeiro, distant 890 miles, & bearing W.½So.
P.M. Light winds & fine. A dance performed by four couples. It became popular in England after 1813. Quadrilles & country dances on deck.

[ Read the full journal for: Monday 26 September 1836 ]


Tuesday 27 September 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Tuesday Sepr 27. After obstinately persevering in taking the
ship out of our course for the last four days, the Captain has
once more altered his mind and we are again steering for
Rio. We have lost from four to five hundred miles by this
unaccountable and to my view unwarrantable proceeding,
but it is useless to complain or remonstrate. My position
precludes me from doing more than stating here what are
the opinions and feelings of every individual of common
sense on board, and I record them more in sorrow than in
anger. We are at present six or seven days sail from Rio;
had we not madly altered our course on the 24th we should
have been, to-day, with the wind as it has stood ever since,
within three hundred miles of our port

[ Read the full journal for: Tuesday 27 September 1836 ]


Tuesday 27 September 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Tuesday, Septr 27. Light winds, & light showers occasionally. Head S.b E. Wind East. 9.30. Altered course tod West, & made all sail before the wind for Rio Janeiro. Noon. Do Wr. Miles run, 103 + 5701 = 5804. Lat. 20E31′ S. Longe. P.M. Moderate & fine, a light shower occasionally. A large Ship standing [...]

[ Read the full journal for: Tuesday 27 September 1836 ]


Wednesday 28 September 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Wednesday, Septr 28. Head West. Wind N.N.E. Trimmed sails, & in lee studg sails. 6. Saw Martin Vas rocks, North, about 7 leagues. Empd drilling gentlemen & the labourers. Noon. Moderate & fine. Miles run, 142 + 5804 = 5946. Late 21E12′ So. Longe 29E24′ Wt. P.M. Moderate breezes & fine.

[ Read the full journal for: Wednesday 28 September 1836 ]


Thursday 29 September 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Thursday, Septr 29. Moderate & cloudy Wr. All sail set, wind N.b E. Course West. Noon. Do Wr. Miles run, 170 + 5946 = 6116. Lat. DR. (no obs.) 21E42′ So. Longe 32E17′ Wt. P.M. Do Wr. In royals.

[ Read the full journal for: Thursday 29 September 1836 ]


Friday 30 September 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Friday, Septr 30th. Moderate & cloudy. Set royals & studg sails. Wind N.N.E. Course West. Noon. Do Wr. Miles run, 143 + 6116 = 6259. Lat. obs. 22E9′ So. Longe T.K. 35E5′ Wt. P.M. Do Wr. In studg sails. Cape Frio at Noon distant 390 miles, & bearing, S.82EWt.

[ Read the full journal for: Friday 30 September 1836 ]


Saturday 1 October 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Saturday October 1. To-day at 12 instead of being at
anchor in the harbour of Rio de Janeiro we are still 230
miles distant from the coast of Brazil. The wind this
evening blows directly in our teeth. No one will envy the
Governor’s feelings at the announcement of a foul wind.
The misfortune is that many may suffer bitterly for one
man’s indiscretion.

[ Read the full journal for: Saturday 1 October 1836 ]


Saturday 1 October 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Saturday, October 1. Fresh breezes & cloudy. Set top & tgt studg sails. Employed painting Ship & preparing for harbour. Noon. Do Wr. Miles run, 164 + 6259 = 6423. Lat. obs. Longe . P.M. Do Wr. 4. Wind became variable with rain. 6. In 2 reefs of topsails. Calms & variable winds, rain occly.

[ Read the full journal for: Saturday 1 October 1836 ]


Sunday 2 October 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Sunday Octr 2. The breeze a little more favorable, and
our hopes of reaching Rio in a couple of days revived. No
public service to-day as there is a heavy sea rolling Mr Howard
read prayers in the Ward-room most of the Ladies & Gentlemen
were present. Neither the Governor nor any of his family I
am sorry to say, attended, although they were advised of the
intention. To-day the first albatross was seen. It was a
white one the Wandering Albatross Diomedea exulans

[ Read the full journal for: Sunday 2 October 1836 ]


Sunday 2 October 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Sunday, Octr 2. Fresh breezes & squally. 2. Wore Ship & stood to the Westward. Wind S.b W. Head West. Owing to the rain Prayers were read in the Wardroom. Many birds following the Ship today. Noon. Fresh breezes & fine. Miles run, 85 + 6423 = 6508. Late obs. 22E36′ So. Longe 39E37′ Wt. [...]

[ Read the full journal for: Sunday 2 October 1836 ]


Monday 3 October 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Monday Octr 3d Wind light, but favorable during the night. But from that strange want of confidence every now & then manifested in the correctness of our position, the Captain ordered the ship to be wore, and we were taken away from the land once more. After standing off for some hours we again made [...]

[ Read the full journal for: Monday 3 October 1836 ]


Monday 3 October 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Monday, Octr 3. Light winds & fine. 8. Made all sail on a wind. Empd washing. 11. Saw the land on the lee beam. Noon. Miles run, 81 + 6508 = 6589. Lat. obs. 22E39′ So. Longe 40E39′ Wt. P.M. Light airs & fine. Sunset. Cape Frio, on lee bow, 20 miles.

[ Read the full journal for: Monday 3 October 1836 ]


Tuesday 4 October 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Tuesday Octr 4th. Anchored in this beautiful harbour at
last; fired a salute of 11 guns to the Admiral & 21 to the
Brazilian flag. Went ashore immediately with my family
and found all our friends at Rio well and glad
to welcome us. Our Colony has created great interest
here —

[ Read the full journal for: Tuesday 4 October 1836 ]


Tuesday 4 October 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Tuesday, Octr 4. Moderate breezes & fine. Running along the land towards Rio Janeiro. Wind Easterly. Noon. Do Wr. Miles run, 113 + 6589 = 6702. At 2.30. Anchored in Rio Janeiro harbour. Salu- -ted Rear Admiral Hammond, which was returned: also the flag of Brazil with 21 guns, which was returned. Moored the Ship. [...]

[ Read the full journal for: Tuesday 4 October 1836 ]


Wednesday 5 October 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Wednesday, Octr 5. Light winds & fine. Vble. Busy getting
bread & stores on board in flag-ship’s boats.
Spent the day on board & on shore with the Hindmarshes.
Breaker’s baby died while on shore, but was brought off.

[ Read the full journal for: Wednesday 5 October 1836 ]


Thursday 6 October 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Thursday, Octr 6. Light winds & fine. Employed watering.
Attended the Hindmarshes to the Museum. Dined on shore.

[ Read the full journal for: Thursday 6 October 1836 ]


Friday 7 October 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Friday, Octr [7]. Moderate & cloudy. 9. Rode to the Botanical Gardens
with the Hindmarshes. 4. Heavy rain. Empd watering.

[ Read the full journal for: Friday 7 October 1836 ]


Saturday 8 October 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Saturday, Octr 8. Fresh breezes & rainy. S.W. Employed watering.
9[?]. Completed water. Went Shopping with the Hind-
-marshes. Dined in the cabin. Mr Vidal came to tea.

[ Read the full journal for: Saturday 8 October 1836 ]


Sunday 9 October 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Sunday, Octr 9. Heavy showers. Walked with the Hindmarshes –
Attended Divine Service on board HM Ship Dublin (50).
The Governor introduced me to Sir Graham Eden Hammond.
Dined & took tea with the Hindmarshes in the cabin.

[ Read the full journal for: Sunday 9 October 1836 ]


Monday 10 October 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Monday, Octr 10. Showery weather. Completed water again.
People busy washing clothes. Up tgt yards. Got
two mules on board & stowed them in the launch.

[ Read the full journal for: Monday 10 October 1836 ]


Tuesday 11 October 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Tuesday, Octr 11. Cloudy weather. Unmoored Ship, & crossed
royal yards. Received a number of banana, pine,
cactus, & other plants, as emigrants to South Australia.

[ Read the full journal for: Tuesday 11 October 1836 ]


Wednesday 12 October 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Wednesday, Octr 12. Light airs & fine. N.E. 5.30. Weighed & made
sail.

[ Read the full journal for: Wednesday 12 October 1836 ]


Wednesday 12 October 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Wednesday Octr 12. Off with a fair wind, but the Buffalo seems
to be in more inextricable confusion that ever; half the men
scarcely sober, the other half fit for nothing from the effects of the
gross intemperance in which they have been permitted to indulge
A fresh supply of poultry, & as if the poor emigrants had not
nuisance around them enough already, eight or ten half grown
hogs which the Captain purchased at Rio a bargain have been
added for their comfort & cleanliness. The Captain’s strict orders from
the Admiralty were to proceed without touching at any port unless
in case of necessity. On a very short allowance of water, we might
have gone on to the Cape; & it was to avoid a measure of this kind
that we came a couple of thousand miles & more out of our track to
Rio. And now what has been the first step taken by the Captain
on leaving this port? Why to do the very thing he came here professedly
to avoid, to reduce the allowance of water to each passenger and
emigrant one pint a day! Besides the mules & hogs, the pens are
filled up with his Excellency’s turkeys, guinea fowls, geese and
poultry, & they must have water; so to accommodate them, we
are thus treated! But this is quite consistent with his general conduct
which is daily becoming more offensive.

[ Read the full journal for: Wednesday 12 October 1836 ]


Thursday 13 October 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Thursday, Octr 13. Fresh breezes & fine. Wind N.E. Course S.E.
Allowance of water 5 pints a day: met with a heavy
disaster – upset my water bottle, & lost a quart of its contents

[ Read the full journal for: Thursday 13 October 1836 ]


Thursday 13 October 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Thursday Octr 13. To-day at 12 upwards of 120 miles from Rio
This evening, Mr Fisher, the resident Commissioner fell down on deck
in an epileptic fit, from which he seemed to suffer much. From the
coolness with which his family looked on amid the general alarm I appre-
-hend that he is subject to such attacks. If the Commissioners at home did
not know of the fact, I think it would be right to inform them, as no
provision that I know of has been made to carry on the duties of his
situation in the event of his being suddenly incapacitated. Another characte
ristic bit of authority on board to-day. The dogs belonging to the passengers
have been refused their modicum of water; those belonging to the Captain
were not included of course. Not to say a word on the score of humanity,
popularity is known to be very fleeting & his Excellency therefore takes
no care to secure even the smallest portion of that perishable commodity
But the expression of disgust was too strong & general upon the subject
to be resisted, & the order was rescinded in the course of the evening
in the hope that the malcontents would be duly sensible of the
favor done them by the non-exercise of the power possessed at sea
by a Captain in the Royal Navy!

[ Read the full journal for: Thursday 13 October 1836 ]


Friday 14 October 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Friday, Octr 14. Fresh breezes & hazy. Wind N.E.b N. Head S.E.b E. Set & in tgt sails occasionally. Noon. Do Wr. Miles run, 180 + 6854 = 7034. Lat. obs. 27E30′ So. Longe 39E26′ Wt. P.M. Do Wr.

[ Read the full journal for: Friday 14 October 1836 ]


Saturday 15 October 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Saturday, Octr 15. Fresh breezes & cloudy. Wind N.N.E. Course E.S.E. Noon. Do Wr. Miles run, 180 + 7034 = 7214. Lat. D.R. 29E 9′ So. Longe 36E41′. P.M. Rain Occasionally. 11. Wind shifted to the N.E.

[ Read the full journal for: Saturday 15 October 1836 ]


Sunday 16 October 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Sunday, Octr 16. Light winds & fine. Head E.S.E. Wind S.b W.
Out reefs, set tgt sails, royals, & tgt studg sails. 10.30. Divine
Service performed by Revd C. Howard. Noon. Do Wr, rather
cool weather. Miles run, 131 + 7214 = 7345. Lat. obs. 30E8′ So.
Longe 34E24′ Wt. P.M. Moderate breezes & fine, going 5 Knots.

[ Read the full journal for: Sunday 16 October 1836 ]


Monday 17 October 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Monday, Octr 17. Variable wind & weather, rain occasionally. Out 2d reefs. Recommenced drilling the emigrants. Noon. Moderate & fine wr. Miles run, 105 + 7345 = 7450. Lat. obs. 30E30′ So. Longe 32E32′ W. P.M. Do Wr. Set royals, topmast & lower studg sails.

[ Read the full journal for: Monday 17 October 1836 ]


Tuesday 18 October 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Tuesday, Octr 18. Fresh breezes & squally. Steering E.S.E. Wind right aft. Rolling deep. Furled mizen topsail. Noon. Do Wr. Miles run, 171 + 7450 = 7621. Lat. 32E6′ So. Longe 30E1′ West. P.M. Do Wr. In ftgt sail. Heavy squall during the night.

[ Read the full journal for: Tuesday 18 October 1836 ]


Wednesday 19 October 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Wednesday, Octr 19. Moderate breezes, squally at times. Head ESE. Wind West. Ship rolling very deep. Made & shortened sail occly. Miles run, 186 + 7621 = 7807. Lat. 32E50′ So. Longe 26E27′ Wt. P.M. Do Wr. Sunset. Showery. In fore tgt sail, and mizen topsail.

[ Read the full journal for: Wednesday 19 October 1836 ]


Thursday 20 October 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Thursday, Octr 20. Moderate breezes, rain at times. Head E.S.E. Wind N.W. Miles run 762 + 7807 = 7969. Lat.e 33E24′ So. Longe 23E36′ Wt. Ship rolling deep. P.M. Do Wr. Got the plants off the poop to ease the ship a little. Sunset. Modte & fine.

[ Read the full journal for: Thursday 20 October 1836 ]


Friday 21 October 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Friday, Octr 21. Moderate breezes and cloudy weather. Head E.S.E. Wind N.W. Noon. Do Wr. Miles run, 153 + 7969 = 8122. Lat.e 34E4′ So. Longe 20E43′ Wt. P.M. Moderate & cloudy. Wind N.N.W.

[ Read the full journal for: Friday 21 October 1836 ]


Saturday 22 October 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Saturday, Octr 22. Light winds & hazy. Head E.S.E. Wind N.N.E.
Miles run, 124 + 8122 = 8246. Late 34E26′ So. Longe 18E13′ Wt.
P.M. Light winds & hazy wr. Lowered the cutter to pick up two
Mother Carey’s chickens, & a Cape pigeon which had been
shot: the albatross was too strong to be affected by the shot.
A dance performed by four couples. It became popular in England after 1813. Quadrilles & a country dance on the Technically called a stern deck, the poop is an exposed partial deck on the stern (rear) of a ship. It forms the roof of the stern or ‘poop’ cabin. poop until 8 P.M.

[ Read the full journal for: Saturday 22 October 1836 ]


Sunday 23 October 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Sunday, Octr 23. Light airs & hazy. Divine Service was in
-               terrupted by a sudden increase of wind & wet,
which rendered it necessary to furl royals & tgt sails,
& take in two reefs in the topsails…

[ Read the full journal for: Sunday 23 October 1836 ]


Sunday 23 October 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Sunday Octr 23. Service to-day upon deck, indecorously interrupted by
the Captain who made a vast commotion in adjusting the sails when
there was certainly no pressing necessity for any thing of the sort.
The people were dismissed; but in five minutes he ordered them all
to be summoned by the bell: Mr Howard however declined to proceed
with the sermon and merely went through the remaining prayers. This
abrupt & irreverent conduct has created much discussion though very
little difference of opinion. It is especially strange that he should have
chosen such a time for making or shortening sail, when his favorite
position is that the fast or slow progress of a ship does not depend on
the number of sails set. Unfortunately for us this is the theory he in-
-variably puts in practice & yesterday we had for six hours the
precise amount & no more canvas spread under a moderate &
favorable breeze, than the ship bore under the heavy gale of the night.

[ Read the full journal for: Sunday 23 October 1836 ]


Monday 24 October 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Monday, Octr 24. Fresh gales & squally. 4. More moderate. out 3d reefs of topsails. 6. In 3d reefs of topsails. Noon. Fine fresh breeze. Miles run, 144 + 8305 = 8449. Lat. obs. 35E9′ South. Longe 13E47′ Wt. P.M. Do Wr. Out 3d & 2d reefs of main topsail, & 3d reef of foretopsail: [...]

[ Read the full journal for: Monday 24 October 1836 ]


Tuesday 25 October 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Tuesday, Octr 25. Moderate breeze & fine wr. Wind No. Head E.S.E. Out 1st reef of maintopsail, set royals, lower, topmt & tgt studg sails on larbd side. A great many birds in Co chiefly the blue peterel. Noon. Do Wr. Miles run, 147 + 3449 = 8596. Lat. obs. 34E47′ So. Longe 70E56′ Wt. [...]

[ Read the full journal for: Tuesday 25 October 1836 ]


Tuesday 25 October 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Tuesday Octr 25. A long sederunt with Capt. Hindmarsh in reference to his
powers as Governor. He maintains that all appointments are in his hands,
& that in no case he is obliged to submit any such to the Council even for
their advice. I have told him plainly my opinion, which is that subject to his
right of proposing, & the power of pardoning or remitting the sentences of
convicts, all executive as well as legislative acts must be done by him in Council
By the Royal instructions he has power to carry his propositions into law even
against the opinion & voice of the “whole or major part” of his advisers – being
obliged however in such a case to assign his reasons for so acting to the
Secretary of State at home – a check, which if not quite sufficient against
temporary acts of folly or despotism is at least fully so as regards their per-
-manence. His Excellency scarcely seemed pleased with my frankness;
but I only gave my honest opinion & not before it was asked, and am
totally indifferent as to its palatableness. He says he is determined to
act singly and uncontrolled – that he has Lord Glenelg’s & Mr Stephen’s
authority for so doing and will not, to use his own words “abate an
inch of his Master’s prerogative” – forgetting perhaps that His Majesty
has in the instance expressly delegated his authority, prerogative & all
to others. But it is in vain to argue with him on this point, or indeed
on any other. He will however probably come or be brought to his senses
ere he be called upon to act.

[ Read the full journal for: Tuesday 25 October 1836 ]


Wednesday 26 October 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Wednesday, Octr 26. Fresh breezes & squally. Wind from No to NNW. Co E.S.E. Miles run, 185 + 8596 = 8781. Lat. obs. 35E14′ So. Longe 7E24′. Wt. Noon. Do Weather. Squared the yards, furled spanker, down royal yards. P.M. Fresh gales and squally. Wind N.W. The coldest weather since we left England.

[ Read the full journal for: Wednesday 26 October 1836 ]


Thursday 27 October 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Thursday, Octr 27, Fresh gales & squally. Head S.E.b E. Wind from
N.W. to West. Noon. Do Wr. Miles run, 199 + 8781, =
8980. Lat. 35E42′ So. Longe 3E46′ Wt. P.M. 2.30 A heavy sea struck the
starbd quarter boat & stove her. Wind round to S.W. At 5
saw a whale about 40 feet long. Furled mizen topsail &
mainsail: down topgalt yards in the forenoon.
Evening. Strong breezes & heavy squalls occasionally. Wind West.

[ Read the full journal for: Thursday 27 October 1836 ]


Friday 28 October 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Friday, Octr 28. More moderate & cloudy. A baby born this morng.
Set tgt sails. Noon. Modte & fine. Miles run, 173 + 8980 =
9153. Lat. 35E49′ So. Longe 0E40′ Wt. Water on board, 100 tons.
P.M. Fresh breezes & fine. Wind S.E. Head East, ENE, &c &c

[ Read the full journal for: Friday 28 October 1836 ]


Saturday 29 October 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Saturday, Octr 29. Moderate & cloudy. Head from E.N.E. to N.N.E. Wind Vb1e. 6.30. Tacked. Noon. Calm. Miles run, 90 + 9153 = 9243. Lat. 34E56′ So. Longe 0.23′ East. Therr 56E. P.M. Light variable winds. Head from S.S.W. to S.E.b E.

[ Read the full journal for: Saturday 29 October 1836 ]


Sunday 30 October 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Sunday, Octr 30. Modte & fine, Head from South to S.E.b E.
Wind N.Ely. Performed Divine Service. Noon. Do Wr.
Miles run, 75 + 9243 = 9318. Late 35E27′ So. Longe 1E35′ Et.
P.M. Fresh breezes & rainy. Head S.E. b E. Wind Northerly. Short-
-en’d sail. 6. Light winds & vble. Midnight. Fresh fair wind.

[ Read the full journal for: Sunday 30 October 1836 ]


Monday 31 October 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Monday, Octr 31. Fresh breezes & squally. Wind West. Course S.E.b E. 8. Mode & fine. Made sail. Noon. Do Wr. Miles run, 168 + 9318 = 9486. Lat. 35E57′ So. Longe 4E49′ Et. P.M. Light winds & fine. Sunset. Shortened sail. Midt. Do Wr.

[ Read the full journal for: Monday 31 October 1836 ]


Monday 31 October 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Monday Octr 31. Drew up to day the first legislative measure for His
Excellency’s consideration – namely to impose certain duties on ardent
spirits. I suspect till we can brew our own beer we shall be obliged to
allow small rations of the “horrid poison” to our labourers in which case
therefore I have endeavoured by imposing a duty of 7/6 per gallon to
avoid making it a heavy tax upon labour. I mean however to propose
that grog shop keepers shall pay a heavy annual license – say £30 or
even £50; & by adopting the act against Tippling make single glasses or
bottles of spirits procurable only with money immediate payment “on the nail” & as dear as we can
I feel however that no legislation can destroy the evil; all we can hope to
effect is to render it as innocuous as circumstances will permit. Our
voyage proceeds favorably we are already 3000 miles from Rio…

[ Read the full journal for: Monday 31 October 1836 ]


Tuesday 1 November 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Tuesday, Novr 1. Light winds & cloudy. Head S.E. Wind Northly. Made all sail. Noon. Mode & fine. Miles run, 130 + 9486 = 9616. Lat. 35E26′ So. Longe 7E11′ East. Cape Lagullas N.81EE. 636′. P.M. Fresh breezes & cloudy. 7. Shortened sail. Midt. Rainy wr.

[ Read the full journal for: Tuesday 1 November 1836 ]


Wednesday 2 November 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Wednesday, Novr 2. Fresh breezes & rainy. Head S.E. Wind W1y. Current N.W. 14 miles. Noon. Mode & fine. Miles run, 185 + 9616 = 9801. Lat. obs. 37E10′ So. Longe T.K. 10E33′ East. P.M. Light winds. Filled 6 tons of salt water. 8. Nearly calm.

[ Read the full journal for: Wednesday 2 November 1836 ]


Wednesday 2 November 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Wednesday Decr 2. [sic] Drew up an act to regulate & settle disputes between
Master and Servant, which I read to the Governor who found it to be the
“very law he had determined to make as he told Lord Glenelg and
Mr Stephens long ago”. Of course he means to claim credit for all the
legislation. I find notwithstanding this amiable intention that unless
I do things myself, though they are not in any shape within my
province, there is no chance of anything but confusion & disorder
to be expected on our arrival. The Governor cannot write two sentences
of grammar or common sense, that is the simple truth; but
I will not allow the chance of his appropriating my labours to his
own in the higher quarters to stand in the way of good
which order & sound legislation from the commencement are
likely to ensure. In this view I am preparing the law for the constit-
-ution of the Supreme Court & the Courts of General or Quarter
and Petty Sessions. The Governor has given me a long list of Magis-
-trates which he intends to include in the first Commission
of the Peace. Among them I observe the names of the Harbour
Master, the Store Keeper and of two young men Hutchinson &
Strangways on board this ship whose only claim to the honour
seems their being the lovers of two of his daughters. One of them
has been a subaltern in a marching regiment and is a surly
empty pated fool; the other held ‘rank’ in Don Pedro’s service. The
manners language & conversation of both are of the lowest & most
trifling character – fitter for the backwoods of Ohio or the edge of St Giles, a slum area of London purlieus
of St. Giles
than for civilised society or the duties of the Magistracy.
If this man has his way we shall soon be in a precious state.

[ Read the full journal for: Wednesday 2 November 1836 ]


Thursday 3 November 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Thursday, Novr 3. Fresh breezes & fine. Wind Noly. Course S.E. Empd filling empty tanks with salt water. Current S.E. 13 miles. Miles run, 123 + 9801 = 9924. Lat. 38E10′ So. Longe 13E9′ Et. P.M. Fresh breezes shortened sail. Midt. Moderate.

[ Read the full journal for: Thursday 3 November 1836 ]


Thursday 3 November 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Thursday Nov. 3. Mr Fisher & I had a prolonged discussion sederunt of three hours with the
Governor, & it pleased me to find that his opinion of his Excellency’s
powers coincides with my own. The Governor however is not yet satisfied,
nor is he pleased, though he was obliged to yield to our objection to the
tag-rag & bob-tail magistrates he wished to appoint. The consequence is
that Gouger, Fisher, Col. Light, & Mr Stephens the Manager of the S.A.
Company, are only to be retained on the list for the present.

[ Read the full journal for: Thursday 3 November 1836 ]


Friday 4 November 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Friday, Novr 4. Moderate breezes & fine wr. Wind Westly. Head E.S.E. Water on board, 98 tons. Miles run, 178 + 9924 = 10102. Lat. 37E57′ So. Longe 16E45′ Et. P.M. Fresh breezes & fine. 8. Wind S.W.b W. Squally.

[ Read the full journal for: Friday 4 November 1836 ]


Friday 4 November 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Friday Nov 4. A boxing match on the The quarterdeck was the deck between the main mast and the back of the ship. quarter deck in which the
Governor performed in his character  only of Captain we hope. A
youngster the son of Mr Eales the kind hearted & respected purser
was ordered to prevent any one from passing a certain point on the
main deck. He forgot the order & the consequence was that his Excellency
with his own proper hands boxed the ears of the lad accompanying
the punishment with a volley of oaths of a quality only to be heard
on board the Buffalo & the The coachmen were known for their strong language Hackney coach stands of London. This is
an original way of maintaining dignity and encouraging senti-
-ments of respect towards him amongst the respectable passengers!

[ Read the full journal for: Friday 4 November 1836 ]


Saturday 5 November 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Saturday, Novr 5. Moderate winds, squally at times. Head E.S.E.
Wind S.W. Noon. Do Wr. Miles run, 162 + 10104 = 10264.
Lat. 37E28′ So. Longe 20E20′ Et. Cape Agulhas, N.4EWt, 162 miles.
P.M. Light airs & fine. From 8 to midnight, Calm and fine.

[ Read the full journal for: Saturday 5 November 1836 ]


Sunday 6 November 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Sunday, Novr 6. Light airs & fine. Wind N.E. Course S.E.b E. 8. Fresh breezes & fine. Performed Divine Service. Noon. Miles run, 68 + 10264 = 10332. Lat. 37E24′ So. Longe 21E49′ Et. St Paul’s S.88EEt, 2650 miles. P.M. Variable.

[ Read the full journal for: Sunday 6 November 1836 ]


Monday 7 October 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Monday, Novr 7. Fresh breezes & squally. Wind W.S.W. Course S.E.b E. Miles run, 173 + 10332 = 10505. Lat. 37E28′ So. Longe 25E3′ East. Noon. Fresh breezes with a heavy swell. P.M. Do Wr.

[ Read the full journal for: Monday 7 October 1836 ]


Tuesday 8 November 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Tuesday, Novr 8. A.M. Moderate breezes & cloudy. Wind W.S.W. Head E.S.E. Set studg sails. Noon. Do Wr with a heavy sea. Miles run, 157 + 10505 = 10662. Late 37E39′ So. Longe 28E26′ Et. P.M. Fresh breezes & cloudy. Shortened sail. Head S.E. Wind S.W.

[ Read the full journal for: Tuesday 8 November 1836 ]


Wednesday 9 November 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Wednesday, Novr 9. Light winds & fine wr. A heavy swell from S.W. Head S.E. Wind S.Wly. 10. Wind N.Ely. Current N.30EW. 38 miles. Noon. Mode & fine. Miles run, 113 + 10662 = 10775. Lat. 37E33′ So. Longe 30E21′ Et. Water remg 87 tons. P.M. Wind N.E. Midnight. Squally. Shortened sail.

[ Read the full journal for: Wednesday 9 November 1836 ]


Thursday 10 November 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Thursday Nov. 10. A poor woman making dreadful complaints
of the Hindmarshes. We have heard many such, but this is worth
chronicling from its peculiar offensiveness. The woman & her husband
had been almost enticed on board & she had been promised by the
ladies of the family every comfort during her confinement. She is
deserted & cannot get even a potatoe notwithstanding the blarney by
wholesale uttered by Mrs Hindmarsh in a visit to her on Sunday. The
Captain’s son’s dog Diana had a house built for her at His Majesty’s
expense & dinner sent regularly to her with every “delicate attention”;
but the Captain has lived too long in the “East” – he was Master of
a Steamer belonging to the Pacha of Egypt where a “dog of a
Christian” is the lowest animal in the scale of creation. Poor Mrs Pike!

[ Read the full journal for: Thursday 10 November 1836 ]


Thursday 10 November 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Thursday, Novr 10. Fresh breezes & cloudy. 11.30. Shipped a sea. Wind N.E. Head S.E. Noon. Strong breezes. Miles run 181 + 10775 = 10956. Lat. 38E32′ So. Longe 33E45′ Et. P.M. Do Wr.

[ Read the full journal for: Thursday 10 November 1836 ]


Friday 11 November 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

… What has kept the officers & many of the best men grin-
-ning all day in each others faces is this; a shoal was marked in our
chart near our position to-day as seen by a Dutchman in 1736.
It is named the “Slot van Capelle” The joke is, that if it exists at
all, which is very doubtful, we must have passed by or over it
at two o’clock this afternoon, seeing that at mid-day we were by
good observation distant from it twelve miles: but at six p.m.
our wise Captain, who is also our Governor more’s the pity, ordered
the ship to be wore and we are now standing west; so that if there
is danger & we missed it in the afternoon, we may have better luck
& hit it in the course of the night. Ask any officer in the ship the
meaning of all this, & he grins in your face & turns away laughing…

[ Read the full journal for: Friday 11 November 1836 ]


Friday 11 November 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Friday, Novr 11. Fresh breezes with rain. Wind N.E. Head S.E.
4. Strong breezes. 4.30. Wind shifted suddenly to the S.W.
Trimmed sails. Exchanged colours with an American Ship.
Noon. Strong winds. Miles run, 170 + 10956 = 11126. Late
38E18′ So. Longe 37E20′ East. St. Paul’s Isle, S.88EE. 1900 miles.
P.M. Fresh breezes & fine. Head E.S.E. Wind    . Wore Ship. Head West
in order to avoid a shoal supposed to be somewhere here.

[ Read the full journal for: Friday 11 November 1836 ]


Saturday 12 November 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Saturday, Novr 12. Fresh breezes & fine. 0.20. Wore Ship. Head East. Wind S.S.E. 8. Mode & cloudy. Head E.N.E. 10.30 Hove to, & spoke an English whaler which sailed on Augt 7th. Noon. Do Wr. Miles run, 119 + 11126 = 11245. Late 38E40′ So. bad. Longe T.K. 38E5′ Et. P.M. Light winds & [...]

[ Read the full journal for: Saturday 12 November 1836 ]


Sunday 13 November 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Sunday Nov. 13. Spoke yesterday an English Whaler (Wood-lark) which sailed about ten days after us. The poor Captain came on board to day & was in sad distress complaining of the slow progress he had made; he was evidently comforted when he learnt that H.M.S. Buffalo had left ten days before him. No service [...]

[ Read the full journal for: Sunday 13 November 1836 ]


Sunday 13 November 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Sunday, Novr 13. Light winds & hazy. Mustered at Divisions. Read
prayers in the wardroom. Communicated with the whaler
“Woodlark”, whose master dined on board. Head S.Ely. Wind Vble.
Noon. Do Wr. Miles run, 71 + 11245 = 11316. Latitude is the distance of a point north or south of the equator as measured in degrees. The poles are at 90 degrees north and south. Lat. 39E55′ So. Longitude is the distance, measured in degrees, of the meridian on which a point lies to the meridian of Greenwich. On the other side of the earth to Greenwich is a point with a longitude of both 180 degrees east and 180 degrees west. Long.
39E44′ Et. P.M. Mode & fine. Tried for soundings with 130 A fathom is a measure of depth in the imperial system. One fathom is equal to six feet or 1.83 metres. fms
no bottom. 6.30. Set studg sails. Woodlark in company.

[ Read the full journal for: Sunday 13 November 1836 ]


Monday 14 November 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Monday, Novr 14. Moderate & cloudy. Head E.S.E. Wind N.Ely. Woodlark in Co astern. Water on board, 82 tons. Noon. Do Wr. Wind S.W. Miles run, 129 + 11316 = 11445. Lat. 39E39′ So. Longe 42E30′ Et. P.M. Fresh breezes & fine. 6. Cloudy. Lost sight of the Woodlark astern. Shortened sail. 12. Do Wr.

[ Read the full journal for: Monday 14 November 1836 ]


Tuesday 15 November 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Tuesday, Novr 15th. Moderate and cloudy. Head E.N.E. Wind S.E. 8. Mode & fine. Tacked Ship. Head S.b W. So & S.b E. Noon. Do Wr. Miles run, 128 + 11445 = 11573. Late 39E2′ So. Longe 45E5′ Et. P.M. Light winds & cloudy. Head S.S.E – S.E. – S.E.b E. Wind N.Ely. 7.30. Made [...]

[ Read the full journal for: Tuesday 15 November 1836 ]


Wednesday 16 November 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Wednesday Nov 16 Drew up a Proclamation for our landing, with
especial reference to Lord Glenelg’s benevolent views towards the
Aborigines; & using in fact his Lordship’s own words as I find
them in the Instructions. My wife whose  interest in the Aborigines
is great, thinks it profanation to put such serious language into the
mouth of a swearing & totally irreligious person like the Governor.
Perhaps it is so, but the Proclamation, if not suited to the man,
is to the circumstances of the Colony; & expresses, not his Excellency’s
views certainly, but those of higher principled & better men.

[ Read the full journal for: Wednesday 16 November 1836 ]


Wednesday 16 November 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Wednesday, Novr 16. Fresh breezes & hazy. Head S.E.b E. & Wind N.E.b E. Noon. Do Wr. Miles run, 148 + 11573 = 11721. Late 39E45′ So. Longe 48E16′ Et – St Paul’s Isle, 1363 miles. P.M. Fresh breezes & hazy. 7.30. Wind shifted to the N.Wd. Midnight. Moderate breezes and cloudy weather. Y.H. [Author’s [...]

[ Read the full journal for: Wednesday 16 November 1836 ]


Thursday 17 November 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Thursday, Novr 17. Moderate & cloudy. Made sail. Head E.S.E. Wind S.W. Noon. Mode & fine. Miles run, 175 + 11721 = 11896. Lat. 39E28′ So. Longe 52E1′ Et. P.M. Light winds.

[ Read the full journal for: Thursday 17 November 1836 ]


Friday 18 November 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Friday Nov. 18. Availed ourselves of the advantage of a calm to obtain
several specimens of the sea birds which flock around us. Three species of
the Longipennes family were shot, among which the wandering albatross
(Diomedia exulans) was the finest;  it measured 10 feet 4 inches from
tip to tip of its wings. We had also an opportunity of contrasting the
elegant blue petrel (p. Vittata) with the largest of the tribe (p. gigantea)
& of proving the singular deceptiveness of vision regarding objects seemingly
but a short distance on the water. The albatrosses from the Technically called a stern deck, the poop is an exposed partial deck on the stern (rear) of a ship. It forms the roof of the stern or ‘poop’ cabin. poop though
constantly near enough for us to observe that it was scanning us,
never appeared larger than a goose of moderate size, but when
brought on deck, the least of them far exceeded in bulk & weight
the largest swan we ever saw.

[ Read the full journal for: Friday 18 November 1836 ]


Friday 18 November 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Friday, Novr 18. Light airs & cloudy. Head E.S.E. Wind Variable.
11. Lowered a boat, & a party of us went a shooting:
returned to the Ship, well loaded with birds, of which eight
were albatrosses, one of which measured between the ex-
tremities of the wings 10 feet 6 inches. Noon. Light airs.
Miles run, 65 + 11896 = 11961. Latitude is the distance of a point north or south of the equator as measured in degrees. The poles are at 90 degrees north and south. Lat. 39E16′ So. Longitude is the distance, measured in degrees, of the meridian on which a point lies to the meridian of Greenwich. On the other side of the earth to Greenwich is a point with a longitude of both 180 degrees east and 180 degrees west. Longe 53E11′ Et.
P.M. Light variable winds & cloudy. Head S.E. 12. Fresh brzes.

[ Read the full journal for: Friday 18 November 1836 ]


Saturday 19 November 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Saturday, Novr 19. Fresh breezes & thick wr. Head E.S.E. Wd N.E. Noon. Do Wr. Miles run, 122 + 11961 = 12083. Lat. 39E38′ So Longe 55E37′ Et. P.M. Fresh breezes & cloudy. Shortened sails.

[ Read the full journal for: Saturday 19 November 1836 ]


Sunday 20 November 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Sunday, Novr 20. Moderate & fine. Head E.S.E. Wind S.S.W. Made sail. Divine Service performed in the Wardroom. Noon. Do Wr. Miles run, 177 + 12083 = 12260. Lat. 39E24′ So. Longe 59E20′ Et. P.M. Modte & fine. Nothing.

[ Read the full journal for: Sunday 20 November 1836 ]


Monday 21 November 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Monday Nov. 21. Busy to-day with two important Acts – one for the sum-
-mary determination of disputes between Master & Servant; the other for
the Prevention of Imprisonment for debt except in cases of fraud &
for the better  recovery of debts; but I was interrupted in having them
considered in the afternoon by the Governor & Fisher, owing to the latter
having another of those unfortunate attacks of epilepsy.

[ Read the full journal for: Monday 21 November 1836 ]


Monday 21 November 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Monday. Novr 21. Moderate & fine. Wind Vble. Head Eastly. Made sail. Noon. Light airs. Miles run, 111 + 12260 = 12371. Lat. 38E58′ So. Longe 61E59′ Et. P.M. Light winds & cloudy. Wind Variable. Head N.E. S.S.W. & E.b S. 8. Tacked. Reefed top sails.

[ Read the full journal for: Monday 21 November 1836 ]


Tuesday 22 November 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Tuesday, Novr 22. Moderate & cloudy. Head E.b S. Wind S.b E. Water, 68 tuns. Noon. Miles run, 111 + 12371 = 12482. Late 38E22′ So. Longe 63E45′ Et. P.M. Strong winds & cloudy. Reefed topsails. Wind S.S,E. Midnight. Do Wr.

[ Read the full journal for: Tuesday 22 November 1836 ]


Wednesday 23 November 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Wednesday, Novr 23. Strong breezes & cloudy. Wind S.S.E. Head E.b N. 10. Made sail. 11. Set tgt sails. Noon. Moderate & fine. Miles run, 122 + 12482 = 12604. Lat. 36E58′ So. Longe 65E 46′ Et. P.M. Moderate & cloudy. St Paul’s isle S.79EE. 572′. 5.30. Tacked. Head S.W. 12. Light airs inclining to [...]

[ Read the full journal for: Wednesday 23 November 1836 ]


Thursday 24 November 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Thursday Nov. 24. This morning a whale that had been playing about at some distance came alongside the ship & after surveying it with much deliberation, quietly returned to two companions who were spouting further off: we suppose that he reported us not worth the trouble of coming to see, as they all continued their [...]

[ Read the full journal for: Thursday 24 November 1836 ]


Thursday 24 November 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Thursday, Novr 24. Light winds & cloudy. Head S.W. Wd Vble 4. Tacked. Head East. Made sail. Noon. Light winds & fine. Miles run, 68 + 12604 = 12672. Lat. 36E36′ So. Longe 65E55′ Et. P.M. Lt winds & fine. 9.45. Wore Ship, head W.S.W. Midt. Light airs.

[ Read the full journal for: Thursday 24 November 1836 ]


Friday 25 November 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Friday Nov. 25. After four days contrary wind we had the pleasure
of seeing the ship once more on her right course; & at ½ past 5 we were going
between 6 & 7 The speed of ship or wind in nautical miles per hour. knots, when in order to maintain the Captain’s favorite
proposition that ships go faster in proportion as they have less canvas
spread, sail was shortened, & we wot not how many Seafarers reduce sails in strong winds so that ships can move more safely and comfortably. Sails are made with rows of small ropes attached to them and these are tied around spars to reduce the amount of sail exposed to the wind. The amount of sail taken in by securing one set of ropes is called a reef. The action of reducing sails is called reefing and the knot that is used to tie the ropes is called a reef knot. reefs taken in.
Everybody loud in dissatisfaction.

[ Read the full journal for: Friday 25 November 1836 ]


Friday 25 November 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Friday, Novr 25th. Light airs & cloudy. 1.30. Wore Ship, head S.E. 8. Made all sail. Noon. Light airs & fine. Miles run, 48 + 12672 = 12720. Lat. 36E36′ So. Longe 67E8′ Et. Water, 63 tons. P.M. Do Wr. Wind S.W.b S. 6. In royals, studg sails, & down jib.

[ Read the full journal for: Friday 25 November 1836 ]


Saturday 26 November 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Saturday Nov. 26. The Governor’s mules, pigs, cow, geese, turkeys, & dogs
must have their full allowance of water, & that they may not suffer,
another pint is this day struck off our allowance in addition to the
pint at Rio. It is impossible to repeat what is said in all quarters of
such conduct. Every thing is sacrificed to his own selfish purposes.
The The mainsail is the lowest sail on the mainmast, as is the fore-sail on the foremast. mainsail has been kept single Reducing sails. reefed now for a month in order
that his cow & mules in the long boat may not suffer by the draught of
wind. Of what importance is making sail to their health or
safety!

[ Read the full journal for: Saturday 26 November 1836 ]


Saturday 26 November 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Saturday, Novr 26. Light winds & fine. Head S.E.½S. Wind S.W.
Made all sail. Noon. Mode & fine. The allowance of
water reduced this day to two quarts a head Latin, per day. per diem , half
of which is consumed in cooking, & the other quart is all
I am allowed for washing & drinking during the day.
Miles run, 754 + 12720 = 12795. Latitude is the distance of a point north or south of the equator as measured in degrees. The poles are at 90 degrees north and south. Late 37E6′ So. Longitude is the distance, measured in degrees, of the meridian on which a point lies to the meridian of Greenwich. On the other side of the earth to Greenwich is a point with a longitude of both 180 degrees east and 180 degrees west. Longe 68E41′ Et.
P.M. Moderate & fine. St Paul’s isle S.77EEt, 444 miles.

[ Read the full journal for: Saturday 26 November 1836 ]


Sunday 27 November 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

The Captain out of dignified spite to Mr Howard because
he demonstrated to the satisfaction of every body on board that we had passed
the “Slot van Capelle” before we Ships could not sail directly into the wind, but they could sail across it at an angle. So, to move forward in the direction of the wind they set a zigzag course, sailing across the wind at alternating angles. That procedure was called tacking. tacked to avoid it, and with whose
prerogatives therefore he is as determined to interfere as Mr Howard is to
resist him, again deprived the Sailors of the benefit of Clergy & we had
Service in the ward-room. Mr H’s preaching is not improving certainly,
… The Sunday School is now
totally neglected abandoned, & the poor children are left to shift for themselves.

[ Read the full journal for: Sunday 27 November 1836 ]


Sunday 27 November 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Sunday, Novr 27. Moderate & fine. Head S.E.½S. Wind N.W. Prayers & a sermon read in the wardroom owing to the unfavourable state of the weather on deck. Noon. Do Wr. Miles run, 125 + 12795 = 12920. Late 38E6′ So. Long. 71E00′ Et. P.M. Do Wr. Shortened sail. Ran against a whale, which gave [...]

[ Read the full journal for: Sunday 27 November 1836 ]


Monday 28 November 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Drew up this morning the first sketch of a law for
preventing unnecessary litigation & for the amicable settlement of all
disputes by arbitration. I mentioned the subject to the Governor in London,
& stated my opinion if we could find means to support a court of
arbitration that it would be well to adopt it in Australia. He had never
heard of the Danish practice; but said he liked the suggestion very much
– so much indeed it appears to have taken his fancy that on my reading
the act to him this forenoon, I had the pleasure of being told that he
had determined to introduce the Danish law into the province
long before he knew me!! He said also that he had consulted Lord
Glenelg & Mr Stephen on the subject – both of whom approved of his
intention – the latter especially was “in extasy” at his being “no lawyer”,
& therefore more fitted to make laws without any regard to form
or legality. Mr Stephen, I suspect, must have amused himself with
slyly quizzing the Governor, but I am quite certain that if either
Lord Glenelg or he had ever seriously listened to him for half an
hour they would have pronounced him wholly unfit for the great
trust confided to his hands, The facts I record here however prove the
quality & the moral honesty of the man.

[ Read the full journal for: Monday 28 November 1836 ]


Monday 28 November 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Monday, Novr 28. Fresh breezes & fine. Wind N.W. Hd S.E.b E.½E. Miles run, 155 + 12920 = 13075. Late 38E42′ So. Longe 74E23′ Et. P.M. Mode & fine. Shortened sail. 12. Squally.

[ Read the full journal for: Monday 28 November 1836 ]


Tuesday 29 November 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Tuesday Nov. 29. A fresh breeze & noon we were by our reckoning 12 miles south east i.e. past the Island of St Pauls. Our Captain in a sad frame because the haze prevented his seeing it, but in order to give one instance more of his anxiety to reach his destination with the utmost [...]

[ Read the full journal for: Tuesday 29 November 1836 ]


Tuesday 29 November 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Tuesday, Novr 29. Fresh breezes & hazy. Wind W.b N. Course S.E.b E.½E. Walker’s wife brought him a boy at 8.30. Noon. Strong breezes. Miles run, 175 + 13075 = 13250. Late 39E3′ So. Longe 77E59′ Et. St Paul’s isle N.11EW, 17 miles. Hauled up to N.N.E. for 3 hours to look for St Paul’s [...]

[ Read the full journal for: Tuesday 29 November 1836 ]


Wednesday 30 November 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Wednesday, Novr 30. Strong breezes. Head S.E.b E.½E. Wind N.N.W. Noon. Miles run, 187 + 13250 = 13437. Late 39E9′ So. Longe 81E40′ Et. P.M. Strong breezes & rainy. Head E.S.E. and wind, W.S.W. Trimmed sails occly. Midnight. Do Wr.

[ Read the full journal for: Wednesday 30 November 1836 ]


Thursday 1 December 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

To-day we are by reckoning 1460 miles from Cape Chatham;
but we have not had a glimpse of the sun since the 27th. Poor Mr Fisher
had another epileptic fit, the second public one since he came on board.
He cut himself very severely over the right eye brow by his fall, & in
fact his escape appears to have been a very narrow one. This is a most
melancholy affection, & from the state of constant excitement in which he
is kept by the brutality of the Governors’s conduct & proceedings it may
turn out serious. I hope sincerely he will be able to weather the voyage.
He passed the evening in our cabin & was a good deal more cheerful
than we expected. His view & expressed opinions of the Capt. are altogether
in unison with & quite as strong as our own.

[ Read the full journal for: Thursday 1 December 1836 ]


Thursday 1 December 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Thursday, December 1. Fresh breezes & rainy. Wind Westly. Head E.S.E. Set mtgt sail. Noon. Mode & cloudy. Miles run, 170 + 13437 = 13607. Late 39E16′ So. Longe 85E19′ Et. Cape Chatham N.80EE. 1488 miles. P.M. Fresh breezes.

[ Read the full journal for: Thursday 1 December 1836 ]


Friday 2 December 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Friday, Decr 2. Strong breezes. 8. Calm with rain. Head E.S.E. Noon. Miles run, 124 + 13607 = 13731. Lat 39E22′ S. Longe 88E3′ Et. P.M. Fresh breezes. Wind W.N.W, Head E.S.E.

[ Read the full journal for: Friday 2 December 1836 ]


Saturday 3 December 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Saturday, Decr 3. Fresh breezes & cloudy. Head E.S.E. Wind W.N.W.
Set Studding sails were set outside the square sails in fine weather and with a fair wind. Their head was fastened to a short yard hoisted to the end of the upper yard and their foot extended by a boom slid out from the lower yard. They took their name, such as main topmast studding sail, from the adjacent sail. studg sails sails. Noon. Miles run, 149 + 13731 =
13880. Latitude is the distance of a point north or south of the equator as measured in degrees. The poles are at 90 degrees north and south. Late 39E16′ So. Longitude is the distance, measured in degrees, of the meridian on which a point lies to the meridian of Greenwich. On the other side of the earth to Greenwich is a point with a longitude of both 180 degrees east and 180 degrees west. Longe 91E14′ Et. Water remg 55 tuns.
P.M. Mode & fine. Head E.b S. Wind Westly. 12. Light winds.

[ Read the full journal for: Saturday 3 December 1836 ]


Sunday 4 December 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Our chaplain ill – worried to death by the proceedings
of our gentlemanly mess towards his wife & family. In consequence
we had no service. The sermon of good Dr Wilson Soder and Man is a diocese of the Church of England (Sodor & Man) edified
us in the morning & one of Jeremy Taylor in the evening – so that
except in the public observance of the sabbath which is here a
mockery, we were no losers…

[ Read the full journal for: Sunday 4 December 1836 ]


Sunday 4 December 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Sunday, Decr 4. Moderate and fine. Head E.b S. Wind S.W. then N.N.E. Made sail. No prayers: Revd Mr Howard being unwell. 10.30. Mustered by Divisions. Noon. Rainy. Miles run, 143 + 13880 = 14023. Late 38E57′ So. Longe 94E20′ Et. P.M. Fresh breezes & cloudy. 5.30. Shortened sail. Wind W.N.W.

[ Read the full journal for: Sunday 4 December 1836 ]


Monday 5 December 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Monday, Decr 5. Fresh breezes & cloudy. Wind N.W. Hd E.b S. Noon. Rainy. Miles run, 193 + 14023 = 14116. Late 38E34′ So. Longe 98E27 Et. Cape Chatham 896 miles. P.M. Fresh breezes & rainy. Wind N.W. West & S.W.

[ Read the full journal for: Monday 5 December 1836 ]


Tuesday 6 December 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Tuesday, Decr 6. Moderate breezes & cloudy. Course. E.b S. Wind S.b W. 6. Set tgt sails & out 2nd reefs of top- sails. Noon. Moderate & fine. Miles run, 156 + 14116 = 14272. Late 38E24′ So. Longe 101E44′ Et. Thermometer 50E.

[ Read the full journal for: Tuesday 6 December 1836 ]


Wednesday 7 December 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Wednesday, Decr 7. Calm & fine. Head E.b S. Miles run, 86 + 14272 = 14358. Late 38E3′ So. Longe 103E35 Et. Noon. Calm & fine. P.M. Light airs & fine. Head E.b S. Wind Northly. 12. Mode & cloudy.

[ Read the full journal for: Wednesday 7 December 1836 ]


Thursday 8 December 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Thursday, Decr 8. Fresh breezes & fine. Head E.b S. Wind N.N.E. Miles run, 140 + 14358 = 14498. Lat. 38E7′ So Longe 106E33′ Et. P.M. Fresh breezes & fine. Head E.b N. Wind Northerly. Sunset. Shortened sail. Midnight. Fresh breezes & cloudy.

[ Read the full journal for: Thursday 8 December 1836 ]


Friday 9 December 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

This morning Mr Fisher & I had a characteristic
scene with the Governor. The latter has always impressed upon me that
it was his right to fix the site of the Capital, & till I saw Colonel Light’s
instructions I believed this to be the case. Undeceived, I was determined
not to be played upon with impunity & accordingly I told the Governor
in Mr Fisher’s presence that  he had misled me, and was himself al-
-together mistaken; that I had read the Commissioners Instructions to
the Surveyor General, & the fact was that it rested solely & exclusively
upon Col. Light’s responsibility to fix the site of Adelaide. The polite &
dignified remark in answer was that “he did not care a — for any
order of the Commissioners & he would fix the seat of Government
where he pleased. It was only his private confidence in Col. Light’s
discretion that would lead him to submit to his decision: he had
Lord Glenelg’s authority for all this, & for setting the Commissioners
at defiance”. I doubt this; & indeed have no further confidence
in the truth of any thing he says But for the consideration my family
& their interests demand I should not remain an hour in my present
position. It seems more & more desirable that the Governor’s powers
should be defined strictly, or some strange antics we shall have; –
but it is far more to be wished that in selecting an individual for
the high office he fills, care had been taken to find a gentleman of
common sense who had little occasion for other brains than his own
& who would despise to lay his own follies entirely upon the shoulders
of honorable men. On the Technically called a stern deck, the poop is an exposed partial deck on the stern (rear) of a ship. It forms the roof of the stern or ‘poop’ cabin. poop watching the sun going down, the
Captain observing to Margaret “They that go down to the sea in ships”
she, unintentionally perhaps but not inappropriately continued the
quotation “they reel to & fro & stagger like a drunken man & are at
their wit’s end”. He replied “You may be at your wit’s end, Mrs S,
but it will not do for me to be at mine, I shall have employment
enough for them!” Margaret thought of Wordsworth I suppose for she
quoted half-aside, “Good help thee silly one!”.

[ Read the full journal for: Friday 9 December 1836 ]


Friday 9 December 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Friday, Decr 9. Fresh breezes & cloudy. Head E.b No. Wind N.N.W. Made all sail. Current in two days S.74EEt 32 miles. Noon. Water remg 48 tuns. Miles run, 182 + 14498 = 14680. Lat 37E00′ So. Longe 110E45′ Et. Cape Chatham N.67EEt 300 miles. P.M. Fresh breezes & squally. Shortened sail. Midnight. Do Wr.

[ Read the full journal for: Friday 9 December 1836 ]


Saturday 10 December 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Received back from his Excellency the legislation acts
I had prepared, with his amendments in pencil. They are more
curious than numerous & I hope some of them may survive that the
higher powers may see what a clever fellow the Governor is. One
instance of his ability in the science will suffice. To maintain as
much as possible the faith of contracts with labourers, I had laid
a heavy penalty upon any one employing a servant knowingly,
during the unexpired period of his engagement with another. The
Governor had interpolated the words “or hiring” and forgot that
he had done so I presume, as he found mighty fault with the
clause & proceeded at great length to expound the gross injustice of
punishing any man for hiring a servant under such circum-
-stances. I agreed with him entirely; but remarked that no such
provision existed in the measure as I had prepared it. He main-
-tained that it did, & though satisfying him that the interpolation
was in his own hand-writing settled the dispute, he had the
candour – not to acknowledge his error – oh no! he never dreams of
being wrong even in his most outrageous absurdities – but to say
that it was a point that for the moment slipt his memory on which
his principal objection to the clause rested. He would however retain
the draft till he remembered it. He did so; & I have this evening
had it returned with the words “or hiring” carefully rubbed out! The
“principal objection” remains in abeyance.

[ Read the full journal for: Saturday 10 December 1836 ]


Saturday 10 December 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Saturday, Decr 10. Fresh breezes & fine. Head E.b N. Wind West
Employed cleaning ship: bent The old term for the left hand side of a ship looking forward. The right hand side is starboard. To avoid mis-hearing an order, it is now referred to as ‘port’. larboard chain cable.
Miles run, 181 + 14680 = 14861. Latitude is the distance of a point north or south of the equator as measured in degrees. The poles are at 90 degrees north and south. Lat. 36E5′ So. Longitude is the distance, measured in degrees, of the meridian on which a point lies to the meridian of Greenwich. On the other side of the earth to Greenwich is a point with a longitude of both 180 degrees east and 180 degrees west. Longe 114E25′ Et.
P.M. Mode & cloudy. No bottom 100 fms of line at 11.30.

[ Read the full journal for: Saturday 10 December 1836 ]


Sunday 11 December 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Turned out at 8 bells in vulgar English 4 o’clock in
the morning; & had the satisfaction to be the first in the ship to make
out the coast of New Holland; it was Cape Chatham; & our chronometers
were found to be right by observation to less than a mile – so all the
fears & fuss about St. Paul’s & the probable errors of these instruments
received a just though silent commentary. A vast number of porpoises
about the ship frolicking & leaping in all directions….

[ Read the full journal for: Sunday 11 December 1836 ]


Sunday 11 December 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Sunday, Decr 11. Mode & cloudy. Made all sail. Head ENE. Wind S.W. 5.30. Saw Cape Chatham in Western Australia bearing N.N.E. Performed Divine Service in the Wardroom. Noon. Do Wr. Land about 7 miles off. Miles run 155 + 14861 = 15016. Lat. 35E10′ So. Longe 117E9′ Et. Barr 30.3. Therm 62E. P.M. Mode [...]

[ Read the full journal for: Sunday 11 December 1836 ]


Monday 12 December 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Monday, Decr 12. Fresh breezes & rainy. Head S.E.b E. Wind S.W. 5.30. Made sail. 8. Mode & fine. Altered course to E.b S. Noon. Water, 44 tuns. Miles run, 168 + 15016 = 15184. Lat. 36o 11′ So. Longe 120E20′ Et. Cape Wiles N.84EE. 764 miles. P.M. Light winds & fine. Wind South. Midnight. [...]

[ Read the full journal for: Monday 12 December 1836 ]


Tuesday 13 December 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Tuesday, Decr 13. Light winds & cloudy. Head E.b S.½S. Wind So. Noon. Miles run, 67 + 15184 = 15251. Lat. 36E16′ So. Longe 121E44′ Et. P.M. Head E.b S. Calms & variable airs.

[ Read the full journal for: Tuesday 13 December 1836 ]


Wednesday 14 December 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Wednesday Decr 14. To make Cape Chatham we have come out of our
way nearly 300 miles; & all to find what every man in the ship
believed, that our watches were right. It has been calm yesterday &
to-day – rather annoying now when within 700 miles of our haven,
& when we consider that had ordinary advantage been taken of the
winds we have been favored with we should have been on shore three
weeks ago. Margaret had a conversation with a settler from Fife
on board; the same individual whose attention to the education of
his children has been so praiseworthy about Australia. “He had
just been devouring a’ the buiks he could get on the subject of
Australia; & he was vera happy to hear frae Maister Stevenson
that a gentleman was to be appointed to tak care o’ the natives.
Puir things! he was like rather to see gude done to them than harm,
& he thocht they might be brought to other & better things, especially as
their powers o’ mimicry were sae extraordinar – & then, ye ken, if they
can mimic fules, they can mimic better things”. Sound reasoning & delivered
with a feeling rarely indeed to be heard from an English peasant of the same
class.

[ Read the full journal for: Wednesday 14 December 1836 ]


Wednesday 14 December 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Wednesday, Decr 14. Calms & light airs. Head Easterly. Trimd sails occly. Noon. Miles run, 23 + 15251 = 15274. Lat. 36E28′ So. Longe 122E5′ Et. P.M. Calms & light airs.

[ Read the full journal for: Wednesday 14 December 1836 ]


Thursday 15 December 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

During the last three days we had royals displayed
for the first time for many weeks. It was calm which accounts for it, but a
favorable breeze springing up they were instantly lowered & a double-
reef taken in on the top sails. The murmurs on board are loud as well
as deep. Reason good that they should be so.

[ Read the full journal for: Thursday 15 December 1836 ]


Thursday 15 December 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Thursday, Decr 15. Calms & light airs. Noon. Head S.E. Wind E.N.E. Miles run, 42 + 15274= 15316. Lat 36E30′ So. Longe 123E11′ Et. P.M. Fresh breezes. Shortened sail. Wind E.N.E.

[ Read the full journal for: Thursday 15 December 1836 ]


Friday 16 December 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Friday, Decr 16. Moderate breezes. Head E.b S. Wind E.N.Ely. Made sail. Noon. Miles run, 111 + 15316 = 15427. Lat. 37E36′ So. Longe 125E4′ Et. P.M. Fresh breezes. Head E.b S. Midt. Light winds.

[ Read the full journal for: Friday 16 December 1836 ]


Saturday 17 December 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Saturday, Decr 17. Fresh breezes with rain. Head East. Wind N.N.E.
Made sail. Noon. Light winds. Miles run, 116 +
15427 = 15543. Latitude is the distance of a point north or south of the equator as measured in degrees. The poles are at 90 degrees north and south. Lat. 38E15′ So. Longitude is the distance, measured in degrees, of the meridian on which a point lies to the meridian of Greenwich. On the other side of the earth to Greenwich is a point with a longitude of both 180 degrees east and 180 degrees west. Longe 127E20′ Et. Thermr 61E.
P.M. Moderate & fine. Trimmed sails. Wind S.W. Midt. Do Wr.

[ Read the full journal for: Saturday 17 December 1836 ]


Sunday 18 December 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Moderate & fine. Made sail. Head E.N.E.
Wind S.Wly. Performed Divine Service, & christened
Henry Walker, born on board…

[ Read the full journal for: Sunday 18 December 1836 ]


Monday 19 December 1836

[, who arrived in South Australia on board the wrote.]

Monday, Decr 19. Moderate & fine. Head E.N.E. Wind W.S.W. Surveyed chain cables. Noon. Miles run, 139 + 15688 = 15827. Late 36E14′ So. Longe 132E55′ Et. Cape Wiles, dist 144 miles. P.M. Mode & fine. Head E.N.E. 8. Light winds & fine.

[ Read the full journal for: Monday 19 December 1836 ]


Tuesday 20 December 1836

[, who arrived in South Australia on board the wrote.]

Tuesday, Decr 20. Light winds & fine. Head E.N.E. Wind S.W. Miles run, 121 + 15827 = 15948. Lat. 35E22′ So Longe 135E3′ Et. P.M. Do Wr. 0.45. Saw land on the larbd beam. 5.30. Sounded in 55 fms. 7.30. Cape Wiles, N.N.E. 15 miles. 8. Light airs & fine, Wind Southerly. 9. Hove to. [...]

[ Read the full journal for: Tuesday 20 December 1836 ]


Wednesday 21 December 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Yesterday we made Cape Wiles; & find it to be to
the Windward is the direction from which the wind is coming. Leeward is the opposite direction, away from the wind. leeward of our course to Port Lincoln. All accounts agree that
the easterly & south easterly winds prevail in this quarter during
the months of December, January & February. To have kept out therefore
with the westerly wind we had before making land, till we were to the
eastward of our haven was what any experienced seaman would
have done; but the turning lathe & carpenters work for his house
are yet unfinished – so we have got right into the south-east wind
where we are likely to be for a week or two. Our Captain does not like
the name of Cape Catastrophe the leading point for Port Lincoln,
he has been endeavouring to pick out a less fearful one, & I have
suggested Cape Flinders after the name of the discoverer of South
Australia who with the modesty of true genius, bestowed his own
name only on a small rock I believe to the westward. Our Governor
intends to immortalize many of our most glorious naval victories
such as Aboukir, Trafalgar, Camperdown, the Nile, &c, by naming
places in S. Australia after them. He has also selected the names of
several admirals & Captains who are likewise to be held in ever-
-lasting remembrance by the same means – Nelson, Duncan,
Newcombe, & Hindmarsh are among the number – We lay to at
about seven leagues from the shore instead of standing in for a
start in the morning so that there is no chance of doing any thing
unless the breeze should freshen. A far more magnificent & glorious sky
to-night than ever we saw or conceived. A double rainbow with the full
moon rising in the centre; clouds of violet & silver: on the opposite side
the sun setting in majesty mid clouds of every hue, from darkest
masses to the scarcely perceptible shade. “These are thy works Parent of Good”.

[ Read the full journal for: Wednesday 21 December 1836 ]


Wednesday 21 December 1836

[, who arrived in South Australia on board the wrote.]

Wednesday, Decr 21. Light winds & fine. 2.30. Filled & stood off. 7.40. Tacked. N.N.W. Water on board, 35 tuns. Noon. Do Wr. Miles run, 59 + 15948 = 16007. Lat. 35E16′ So. Longe 135E36′ Et. Cape Wiles, N.½E. 16 miles. Therm 64 o. P.M. Light winds. Making long tacks, & gaining no ground.

[ Read the full journal for: Wednesday 21 December 1836 ]


Thursday 22 December 1836

[, who arrived in South Australia on board the wrote.]

Thursday, Decr 22. Light winds & fine. Wind variable contrary. 2.30. Tacked. 4. Tacked. 8.50. Tacked. 12. Tacked. Miles run, 68 + 16007 = 16075. Lat. 35E8′ So. Longe 135E25′ Et. P.M. Light winds & fine. 3. Tacked. 8.50. Tacked. 12. Fresh winds.

[ Read the full journal for: Thursday 22 December 1836 ]


Friday 23 December 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

For the last three evenings we have neared the land
just in time to be too late to proceed; & we have regularly Ships could not sail directly into the wind, but they could sail across it at an angle. So, to move forward in the direction of the wind they set a zigzag course, sailing across the wind at alternating angles. That procedure was called tacking. tacked &
stood out to sea a sufficient distance to occupy the whole day in returning.
The breeze however is a little fresher this evening & we shall probably
go on. Our worthy captain has been openly bragging of having imposed
upon the Commissioners by telling them of a 90 or 100 days passage;
while he says that he knew all along, & in fact told Mrs Hindmarsh,
at Portsmouth, that we should not be at Port Lincoln before
December 22 (yesterday) “For,” said he, (I record the words) “If I had
said a longer time to them, I should not have been able to get the
Buffalo” !! So our precious Governor feels no scruple in telling, & no
shame in avowing that he has told a gross falsehood on a point of the
last importance to the welfare of the Colony! What may we not expect in
the way of imposition after this?

[ Read the full journal for: Friday 23 December 1836 ]


Friday 23 December 1836

[, who arrived in South Australia on board the wrote.]

Fresh breezes & fine. Wind Easterly variable.
1.30. Ships could not sail directly into the wind, but they could sail across it at an angle. So, to move forward in the direction of the wind they set a zigzag course, sailing across the wind at alternating angles. That procedure was called tacking. Tacked . 6.40. Tacked. 8. Mode & fine. Miles run,
100 + 16075 = 16175. Latitude is the distance of a point north or south of the equator as measured in degrees. The poles are at 90 degrees north and south. Late 35E21′ So. Longitude is the distance, measured in degrees, of the meridian on which a point lies to the meridian of Greenwich. On the other side of the earth to Greenwich is a point with a longitude of both 180 degrees east and 180 degrees west. Longe 135E45′. Et.
P.M. Light winds & fine. 1. Tacked. 3. Wind ESE.
Set Studding sails were set outside the square sails in fine weather and with a fair wind. Their head was fastened to a short yard hoisted to the end of the upper yard and their foot extended by a boom slid out from the lower yard. They took their name, such as main topmast studding sail, from the adjacent sail. studg sails . 6.30. To reduce sail by taking it in. Shortened sail . Wind very light. Sent
a boat ahead to The action or process of measuring the depth of water with a sounding line, a line marked at intervals of fathoms and weighted at one end. A fathom is a unit of length equal to 6 feet (1.83 metres). sound , running to the No between Williams’s
island & Thistle island. 10. Passed Williams’s island. A fine
moonlight night. Standing up towards Port Lincoln: Going
about 1 knot. Struck a porpoise with the harpoon, & haul-
-ed him in. Ate a piece of him (not bad.) 12. Light airs.

[ Read the full journal for: Friday 23 December 1836 ]


Saturday 24 December 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

At ½ past 4 this morning we were off Cape Donnington;
& at 9 perceived the Cygnet at anchor in Spalding Cove. Capt. Lipson
came on board & announced that Jones’s Harbour in the Gulph of
St. Vincent is considered a desirable spot for our metropolis. Colonel
Light’s letter speaks in glowing terms of the place, & of the whole eastern shore
of the Gulph, which he compares to Devonshire. All the vessels that preceded
us but the Tam o’Shanter have arrived safe & well. The only accident reported
has happened to the surgeon & another young man in the Africaine, who
are said to have perished, at least they have been lost in a mad attempt
to walk from the western shore of Kangaroo Island to Nepean Bay on
the north eastern side. Heard rather bad accounts of the proceedings of
Mr Stephens the Company’s Manager at Nepean Bay, who has
been involved in some quarrels with his people. This we hope is exaggerated;
if not, the circumstance is deeply to be lamented, as on the prudent
management of the Company’s affairs here depends in a great
measure the success of the Colony. We are told that supplies are already
abundant from Van Diemen’s Land. Landed with the Governor,
Fisher & Lipson at the head of Spalding Cove. The land does not
appear good; it is covered with scrubby wood, & there is no water to
be found. Picked up some specimens of lime-stone & feld spar. The
rocks were chiefly a conglomerate stone in which there is a difference in colour between the pebbles and the matrix pudding stone; the tea-tree of New Holland
growing in great abundance & a variety of the
samphire plant. The shells were very numerous, & the cuttle fish in
great plenty. It was determined to take the Cygnet with us to
show us our way & the Captain accordingly ordered her to follow us, which
she did; so Port Lincoln has been left without any one to warn the
Other ships had already left England bringing more immigrants, bound for South Australia ships expected from England where to go should they arrive in Spalding
Cove ere a boat’s crew can be sent back to keep a look out, & give
information to all comers of our ultimate locality. This arrangement
is quite of a piece with all the others.

[ Read the full journal for: Saturday 24 December 1836 ]


Saturday 24 December 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Light winds & fine. Running up towards
Port Lincoln. 8. To ‘heave to’ is to reduce a ship’s sails and adjust them so they counteract each other and stop the ship making progress. It is a safety measure used to deal with strong winds. Hove to, Boston island, N.W. 2 miles.
8.30. Filled, working into Spalding Cove. Saw the Cygnet
at anchor there. Captn Lipson came on board us at 10.
Captn Hindmarsh went to the Cygnet & on shore. Stood off
to sea. Fresh breezes & fine. Having run about 16200 miles.
P.M. Mode & fine. South. Captain H. came on board. Soon after
Cygnet joined company. 9. A fine clear night. We were
nearly ashore on a small low island not down in the
chart. Employed working between the various islands.

[ Read the full journal for: Saturday 24 December 1836 ]


Sunday 25 December 1836

[, who arrived in South Australia on board the wrote.]

Light winds & fine. S.E. Working to windwd
between Wedge isle & Thistle isle. Performed Di-
-vine Service on deck. P.M. Do Wr. Wind South. At 2
Captn Lipson & family came to dine with the Governor.
Light winds & fine. Working to the N.E. end of Wedge island.

[ Read the full journal for: Sunday 25 December 1836 ]


Sunday 25 December 1836

[, who arrived in South Australia on board the wrote.]

Christmas Day, clear, cloudless & beautiful; with the
thermometer at 68 Thoroughly disgusted with the conduct of the Governor
to-day. Such violence & ruffianism are without parallel, & his profane &
abominable oaths have driven all but his own & Mr Howard’s family
from the deck to seek refuge from the outrageous profanity in their own cabins.
Waiting for the Cygnet to come alongside with Capt Lipson’s family to
dinner. This is pushing on with a vengeance! The jaw of a remarkably
large shark brought on board It measured when extended six feet four
inches in circumference. The length of the animal was 19 feet. Its
liver alone yielded 25 gallons of oil & the weight altogether was estimated
at little less than five tons: it was taken in Nepean Bay.

[ Read the full journal for: Sunday 25 December 1836 ]


Monday 26 December 1836

[, who arrived in South Australia on board the wrote.]

Monday, Decr 26. Light winds & fine. E.N.E. Working between Cape Spencer & Wedge island. Tacked occasionly. Noon. Mode & fine. Working along between Kangaroo island & Althorp island. Observed a large fire on shore. Wind Easterly. Calms & variable airs at times. 12. Mode breeze.

[ Read the full journal for: Monday 26 December 1836 ]


Monday 26 December 1836

[, who arrived in South Australia on board the wrote.]

Mr Lipson has made a very unfavorable report of
the conduct of Mr Stephens who is said to drink to excess. He has it seems
married at sea the sister of a Carpenter in the Company’s employ! This
was a most injudicious step inasmuch as it must necessarily connect him too
closely with a servant under his control & therefore injure his status in
society as Manager; but if he turns out a drunkard all is over with
him. How our good friend Mr Angas has been deceived in his estimate
of this young man! He prepared me to expect some peculiarities, but was
convinced of his steadiness & good intentions. That there have been many
quarrels between him & his men is too true. It is said he has established a
public house, & cannot get the man to whom he gave the direction out
of it since he has displeased him. I had suggested that Mr Stephens
name should be in the Commission of Peace, which was intended. It
is now to be withheld till the truth of all this is known.

[ Read the full journal for: Monday 26 December 1836 ]


Tuesday 27 December 1836

[, who arrived in South Australia on board the wrote.]

Tuesday, Decr 27. Variable winds. The Cygnet sent a boat to the fire on shore, but could not land. 5. A fresh breeze from Westwd. Noon. Light breezes and fine. P.M. Fresh breezes & fine. Heard three guns fired in Ne- -pean bay – answered with two guns. Cygnet in company. 8. Shortened sail, & [...]

[ Read the full journal for: Tuesday 27 December 1836 ]


Tuesday 27 December 1836

[, who arrived in South Australia on board the wrote.]

We have been beating between Althorp & Kangaroo
Islands for the last two days without making much progress; but the
wind this morning became fair & we are now proceeding. There was a great
fire made on the shores of Kangaroo Island yesterday evening, & it
occurred to me that if the poor fellows reported lost from the Africaine had
really made the coast, this might be a signal from them. I mentioned this
to the Captain whose humane answer was “Oh they are dead long ago!”
Mr Lipson however, seems to have coincided with me, for during the
night he put off from the Cygnet to endeavour to ascertain what it
was; but unfortunately he could not land owing to it having fallen
calm. His opinion is that as there are no natives on the island it may
have been the unfortunate persons alluded to; & that it would be
desirable to take the first opportunity to explore the spot. Why this was
not done at once, I leave the Captain to explain. The chance of saving
the lives of two human beings was surely as well worth losing time for,
as the delay to pick up a cur overboard, or getting a lathe finished
or a dressing table made.

[ Read the full journal for: Tuesday 27 December 1836 ]


Wednesday 28 December 1836

[, who arrived in South Australia on board the wrote.]

Mode & fine. 7. Sent a boat on shore
to the settlement in Holdfast bay. 10. Anchor’d
in Holdfast bay in 7 A fathom is a measure of depth in the imperial system. One fathom is equal to six feet or 1.83 metres. fms . Noon. Light winds & fine.
P.M. Do Wr. At 2 His Excellency Governor Hindmarsh
accompanied by the Colonial & Naval Officers land-
-ed. The Ship was dressed in all her colours, & fired
a royal salute, & His Majesty’s commission to
the Governor having been read, a A rifle salute. In French means “fire of joy”. feu-de-joie was
fired by the Marine guard of Honour, when the
English Ensign of St George was hoisted. The
Governor’s Proclamation was then read, after which
His Majesty’s & His Excellency’s healths were drunk
with great enthusiasm. The sailors then began
to get pretty drunk, so that we had great dif-
-iculty to get on board, many staying behind.
The natives set fire to the woods, which burnt grandly.

[ Read the full journal for: Wednesday 28 December 1836 ]


Wednesday 28 December 1836

[, who arrived in South Australia on board the wrote.]

The wind continued favorable during the night, &
this morning we came to an anchor in Holdfast Bay, lying due west of Mount
Lofty & now about thirteen miles to the southward of the intended harbour.
Mr Gouger came on board with a Mr Kingston one of the surveyors & gladdened
us with the intelligence of splendid land, plenty of fresh water, & the prospect
of an excellent location….
It was determined to go ashore to day & read
the Governor’s Commission &c, & preparations to land were made. At
½ past one we left the Buffalo – the Governor, Fisher, myself & our families
in one boat, the Treasurer, Chaplain & others in a second, & about 20 marines
in a third besides the officers of the ship. The Council met in Gouger’s tent,
where the orders in Council & Commission were read & the oaths to the
Governor & members of Council were administered. The Commission
was afterwards read by me to the settlers of whom about 200 were present.
A royal salute to the British Flag was fired & a A rifle salute. In French means “fire of joy”. feu-de-joie by the marines.
Afterwards the Buffalo saluted the Governor with 15 guns. A cold collation
was prepared in the open air of which the party partook; & all might have
gone off very well had not our Treasurer got brutishly drunk and
conducted himself in his usual disgraceful fashion towards every
lady & gentleman with whom he came in contact. We were all delighted
with the aspect of the country & the rich soil of Holdfast Plains: Mount
Lofty & the hills before us are wooded to the very summits 1500 feet at
least above the level of the sea. On the plains there are numerous splendid
trees of the eucalyptus species: the Banksia  rosa marinafolia was in
great beauty. We found the pea, butter cup, the camomile daisy, and
geranium, the flax plant, the kangaroo grass in great abundance.
The parrots & parroquets were very numerous. In a short walk we started
several covies of quail, & from a specimen shot there does not appear any
difference between it & the European variety. Nothing in fact can be
richer than the soil: I have seen the Pickaway plains of Ohio & traversed the
Prairies of Illinois & Indiana, but the best of them are not to be compared
to the richness of Holdfast Plains . . .

[ Read the full journal for: Wednesday 28 December 1836 ]


Thursday 29 December 1836

[, who arrived in South Australia on board the wrote.]

Thursday, Decr 29. Light winds – a little rain. Hoist- -               ed out the launch, & sent the mules on shore the Governor intending to ride over to the intended site of the town. Went ashore with two boats to haul the nets caught several sting rays, & a few other fish. Came on to [...]

[ Read the full journal for: Thursday 29 December 1836 ]


Friday 30 December 1836

[, who arrived in South Australia on board the wrote.]

Friday, Decr 30. Fresh breezes & cloudy. S.W. Had no inter- -course with the shore today. Let go the larbd anchor.

[ Read the full journal for: Friday 30 December 1836 ]


Saturday 31 December 1836

[, who arrived in South Australia on board the wrote.]

Moderate. & fine. S.W. Morphett rode,
Strangways & I walked up to the intended city of
Adelaide. Walked back again: got on board at 9.30.P.M.

[ Read the full journal for: Saturday 31 December 1836 ]


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