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Briefly about the John Pirie:

The John Pirie was the smallest of the nine ships that arrived South Australia in 1836. It was just 19 metres long!  By comparison, today an articulated bus is 17 metres long. It was named after the London merchant  and alderman John Pirie who owned half of the shares in the vessel. The other half [...]

Read more about the John Pirie

Journal Entries written onboard the: John Pirie

Thursday 10 March 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

During this Day, the Capt sent on board,
six young Sheep, likewise a lot of A swede or yellow turnip. Sweedish Turnips ,
and some Hay

[ Read the full journal for: Thursday 10 March 1836 ]


Tuesday 15 March 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

There was a deluge of Rain, all last Night, accompd with
uncommon heavy A squall is a sudden, sharp increase in wind speed. Squalls , indeed so excessively hard, has
the Wind been blowing, the last two Nights and Yestdy that
even in this well shelter’d Harbour, several Ships have
brought home their Anchor’s, and drifted to Windward is the direction from which the wind is coming. Leeward is the opposite direction, away from the wind. leeward , where
they have had to let go, the second One  ____   however the
“John Pirie”, has rode out the Gale in safety, by only one
Anchor being down, and without ever moving from the first
situation, in which She was placed    ______    The Weather
has now become quite moderate, but two of our Sheep, have
caught very bad Cold’s, and are removed to the Livestock on board were normally kept in pens on deck. Any needing to recover from exposure during severe weather might have been transferred to the between-decks. While loosely described as a ‘hospital’, it was in no sense a formal one. Hospital ,
(a place we have partitioned off, from the others) where
they can be better attended too, and made more comfortable,
than being amongst those, that are healthy   _______

[ Read the full journal for: Tuesday 15 March 1836 ]


Saturday 19 March 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

There being a fine Breeze, from the S,E, this Morng we
got under weigh, at Daylight, and proceeded to Sea,
in company with several other, outward bound Vessels,
______

[ Read the full journal for: Saturday 19 March 1836 ]


Tuesday 22 March 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

_______    There has been a great deal of Rain, during the
Night, and 2 A,M, the Wind shifted round to the Northward
in a fine Breeze, but which only lasted untill Noon,
when it fell nearly a Calm, and at 4 PM, a steady
Breeze again sprang up from W,S,W, but a strong Sea,
still coming from N,W, causes the Vessel to labour very
much, and has prevented the Sheep getting any rest in
their Pen’s since Yestdy morng, besides making several
of the Passenger’s squeamish     _____________

[ Read the full journal for: Tuesday 22 March 1836 ]


Thursday 24 March 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

___   There has been a tremendious high and cross Sea, all
Night, with heavy Squalls of Wind, from N,W, by N,
accompd by pelting showers of Hail, and Rain,  _______
All our live Stock seem very much distress’d, for
the want of rest, and one of the Rabbits brought forth
six young One’s, during the Night, all of which were
dead   _______

[ Read the full journal for: Thursday 24 March 1836 ]


Sunday 27 March 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

The Gale has contd since Thursday, from the Westward,
and without the least intermission, or abatement, but
at 3, P,M, of this Day, it veer’d to S,W, and increased
to a perfect Hurricane, raising the Sea, to the greatest
possible pitch of Madness, and violent uproar, so that
fearing every thing would be washed off the Deck’s, we
bore away, right before the Wind, at 4, P,M, hoping by
this means, to save them, from destruction, but the Weather
has contd (to the end of this Day) so truly awful, as
to baffle all description, indeed the Elements, seem to be
engaged, in the most dreadful Warfare, with each other,
and violence is the order of the Day, in which the Rain
likewise takes a good share, for it is pouring down
in Torrents  _____  At 10, P,M, the Wind backed
round to N,W, and I think (if possible) it blows
more terrifickly than ever  _________

[ Read the full journal for: Sunday 27 March 1836 ]


Monday 28 March 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

At 2, A,M, a most tremendious Sea, overlap’d the Vessel,
and giving her such a violent Shock, as caused both the
Capt and every Soul on board, to suppose She must foun-
-der, being for a time completely buried under Water,
however, after a few Moments, of the most horrible suspense,
the little Vessel again arose out of the angry Deep, when
both Pumps were essential equipment because all ships took in water. They were worked by hand, either by the crew or by steerage passengers who were expected to assist Pump’s  were set to work, and which to our unutterable
satisfaction, very soon sucked her dry, but the loss
sustained by that dreadful Sea, is truly lamentable  ____
The two Sheep-pen’s, were swept away from their fast-
-enings, and One of them dashed to pieces, when all the
poor Sheep which it contain’d, were washed overboard, the
other Pen is also greatly injured, and thus were 12
of our Sheep either kill’d or drown’d, likewise, 3 Pig’s
23 Fowls, 2 Turkey’s, and 2 Rabbits, shared the same
hard fate, besides 5 Sacks of Fodder, and all the Turnips
also, 1 Barrel of Beef, 1 Tierce of Pork, the Log-reel,
and several other Articles, were all swept off the Decks,
along with the Sides of a ship raised above deck level to protect objects and crew Bulwark  &c, after which Capt Martin,
order’d all the Hay to be thrown overboard, deeming such
a course expedient for the safety of the Vessel, as the
Sea was now making a regular passage over her, every
Minute, and filling the Cabin with Water, through the
Panes of A framework placed over a deck opening and fitted with glazed windows to admit light Skylight , which it had broken, although they
were defended all round, by strong Canvas, not even leaving
a place uncover’d by which to see the Compass, nor daring
to steer in any other direction, than right before the Wind,
At 4, A,M, the On a schooner like the John Pirie, the foreyard is the lowest yard attached to the foremast to spread the square sails Foreyard  gave way, breaking into two
pieces by the Slings, and the close reef’d Fore-top-sail,
split into Ribbon’s, which was the only Canvass, we
had set, at the time, our A small boat carried across the stern of a ship and suspended from davits stern Boat  also got stove,
Thus did this most desperate of all Gale’s, continue
to blow, without the least sign of abateing untill Noon,
when it became rather less violent, and at 4, P,M, we ventured
to To ‘heave to’ is to reduce a ship’s sails and adjust them so they counteract each other and stop the ship making progress. It is a safety measure used to deal with strong winds heave-too , although the Sea was most terribly high,
and the A squall is a sudden, sharp increase in wind speed Squalls  still uncommonly heavy, causing the
Vessel to labour exceedingly, and ship a great deal of Water,
but we had either to do this, or run down upon a A lee shore is dangerous. It is a coast onto which the wind blows from the sea, presenting the danger that a ship will be blown onto shore lee Shore
in the Bay of Biscay

[ Read the full journal for: Monday 28 March 1836 ]


Tuesday 29 March 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

We contd To ‘heave to’ is to reduce a ship’s sails and adjust them so they counteract each other and stop the ship making progress. It is a safety measure used to deal with strong winds hove too the whole Day, with the
Wind still blowing very strong indeed from N,W, and the
Sea running most tremendiously high & cross  _____
The People have all been busily employed, in clearing
away and securing every thing, that remain’d upon Deck,
repairing various parts of the Rigging, and fishing
the On a schooner like the John Pirie, the foreyard is the lowest yard attached to the foremast to spread the square sails Fore-yard

[ Read the full journal for: Tuesday 29 March 1836 ]


Wednesday 30 March 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

At 4, A,M, the Wind coming round from S,W, we bore
away for Falmouth, which was then, about 300 Miles dis-
-tant, as the Wind still kept blowing most awfully, and the
Sea equally as cross as ever, causing the Vessel to roll about,
and labour very much indeed  _______  During the Forenoon
our white Sow brought forth 10 young Ones, all of which
were dead, and the size of half grown Rats  ________

[ Read the full journal for: Wednesday 30 March 1836 ]


Thursday 31 March 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Our Vessel contd, to tumble about exceedingly heavy the whole
of last Night, and shipping a great deal of Water, while
the Wind still kept blowing very strong, until 3 A,M, when
it began to moderate, and at 8 A,M, has gradually lessend,
to a clever Breeze, and we had once more the pleasure of
seeing all the Seafarers reduce sails in strong winds so that ships can move more safely and comfortably. Sails are made with rows of small ropes attached to them and these are tied around spars to reduce the amount of sail exposed to the wind. The amount of sail taken in by securing one set of ropes is called a reef. reef’s  shaken out, and our Vessel again under
whole Sails, after having experienced one of the most severe
Gales of Wind, ever witnessed, indeed I am astonished, how
this little Vessel, has weather’d such a violent and terrifick
Storm, in the awful rough Sea’s of the Western Ocean,  ___
The only live Stock which have survived its fury, are
5 young Sheep, (which we purchased at Falmouth)
2 Sow’s, 3 Rabbits, and 1 Turkey, besides several of
the Crew being almost fatigued to Death, our Cook has not
been able to come upon Deck, since Tuesday last, but
two of the Passengers, named Tindal, and Powell,
volunteer’d to do his duty, these men, with one Stephen Sessions
have always been very willing, to render their assistance
when ever they could be useful  _____________

[ Read the full journal for: Thursday 31 March 1836 ]


Friday 1 April 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

The beginning of last Night, was nearly a Calm, which contd until 3, A,M, when a fine Breeze sprang up from S,W, and the Sea is much fallen, but at Noon, the Wind increased to a fresh Breeze, with hazy Weather, and at 4, P,M, our Capt thinking we should not be far from the [...]

[ Read the full journal for: Friday 1 April 1836 ]


Saturday 2 April 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

We had a high Wind all last Night, accompd with heavy Showers of Hail, and at 6 A,M, it Westward, but still blew very strong in the Squalls, and we had got so far to leeward of Plymouth, as to be unable to reach that Port, however we got a Dartmouth Pilot when off the [...]

[ Read the full journal for: Saturday 2 April 1836 ]


Sunday 3 April 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Most of our People, went on Shore to Church, this Morng, but Stephen Sessions never came back to the Ship, so that I think, the uncommon severe Weather, that we have experienced, must have terrified him from proceeding further on the Voyage, as he always behaved himself very well, and seem’d to be an honest, [...]

[ Read the full journal for: Sunday 3 April 1836 ]


Monday 4 April 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

This Morng Lloyd’s Surveyor, and two other Gentlemen,
came on board, to look at the Damage, our Vessel had
received in the late tremendious Gale’s, and found that
amongst other disasters, the Fore-top-Mast was ‘Sprung’ is the past participle of ‘spring’. In respect of the John Pirie’s Fore-top-Mast, the word ‘sprung’ refers to the mast being split or cracked during the storm it experienced. sprung ,
and in the Afternoon sent Workmen to commence repairs __
At 2, P,M, we were very much surprised, at receiving
a visit from Sl Stephens Esqr C.M. who had left the
Duke of York in Tor Bay, which is not more than
5 Miles distant from this place and where She has been
all the late bad Weather, but has broke her A machine with a horizontal axle for hauling or hoisting: in this case it refers to the device used to hoist the anchor on the John Pirie. A windlass is different from a capstan, which has a vertical axle. Windlass , and
lost an Anchor,  _________  The Weather is very fine to
Day, with a gentle Air of Wind, from the Northward  ___

[ Read the full journal for: Monday 4 April 1836 ]


Tuesday 5 April 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

There has been a fresh Breeze of Wind, all this Day, from S,W, accompd with a great deal of Rain

[ Read the full journal for: Tuesday 5 April 1836 ]


Wednesday 6 April 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Another account of the same storm was written by the captain of the John Pirie, George Martin:

Letter Martin to Angas 6 April 1836

Dartmouth, April 6th 1836

To /

G.F. Angas Esqr

Sir

I have the pleasure to acknowledge receipt
of your letter, last evening, dated the 4th, when I wrote you on
last saturday, it was late, & having but just come to an Anchor,
being at the time much fatigued, not having been in a bed for
nearly ten days, you will pardon my not writing you at the time
all particulars, which by your leave I will now endeavour to do –
After having sailed from Falmouth, soon after passing the
Lizard the wind began to increase to a gale & variable from NWt
to SWt , taken every advantage of the wind changing to Tack,
in order to get to the westward, & had succeeded by the 26th of
March to get as far as 100–00′ West & 460–00′ North, the wind
still increasing, and nothing gale after gale, ancsiously looking
out for a change, each quartering of the moon, but to no effect;
On sunday 27th the wind at SWt, at 3 P.M the A squall is a sudden, sharp increase in wind speed squalls
came on very fast & heavy, no appearance of a favourable
change, Bore up much against my will, in company with
several other Vessels, stowed all the fore & aft sails close reeft
the Fore Topsail, & endeavoured to set it, but by this time the
wind had increased to such a pitch, that with the assistance
of all the passengers I could not get the sheets more than half
home, nor could I take it in again, was glad it was so far set,
in order to keep the Vessel before the sea; the wind still
gradually increasing, with heavy squalls & very high sea; at
Midnight, thought it impossible that it the wind could continue
long with such violence, but of which I was mistaken, for the wind
& squalls became most terific, the sea rising to a dreadfull hight
& running very cross, from the wind veering from SWt to North; but
was obliged to keep her Dead before it, fearfull of To ‘heave to’ is to reduce a ship’s sails and adjust them so they counteract each other and stop the ship making progress. It is a safety measure used to deal with strong winds heaving her too  –
and as much as three or four men could do to steer her, to keep her
from broaching too, at 2 A.M (Monday Morning) a tremendous
sea broke on board of us, which complitely overwhelmd her in one
solid body of water, I then for some time gave up all hopes of ever
seeing her rise again, she being to all appearance at the time going
Down, in consequence of the great weight of water on her decks, the
Sailing ships carried various smaller boats for different purposes. A longboat was an open row boat accommodating eight to ten oarsmen that was capable of moving through high waves long boat  also being full of water, but having all hands on deck we
with bars & handspikes broke the Sides of a ship raised above deck level to protect objects and crew Bulwark  upon, by which means
the water got of the decks, & she rose her head again, set both Pumps
[to?], which to my great joy soon suck’t, the wind blowing now a most
dreadfull Hurrican, & the sea past all possible description, and in fact
past all belife, about 3 A.M. the fore yard came down in two pieces,
the Fore Topsail split in ribbands, the sea making a complete breach
over us fore & aft, & a most horrible sight, the Vessel appearing a
a complite wreck, not one on board ever expting to see daylight,
all the hatchways I had battend down, so no water could get below, by
this time, but the [seas?] had broken the sheep pens & washed the most of sheep
overboard – it had also broken the skylight & nearly fulld the cabin with
water, which damaged ever thing in my cabin, particularly my sextant,
quadrant, charts, cloths &c which with my stock of the desk, I should
not be able to replace for Thirty Pounds –, I had by this time thrown overboard
all the hay & every thing loose we could put our hands upon, in order
to lighten the weight of our Decks, I had one man washed overboard, but
fortunately succeeded in getting him in again, we were all now To lash fast is to secure objects or seafarers to the deck of the ship with ropes so that they would not be swept overboard during a storm lashd
fast
, two men to the Pumps were essential equipment because all ships took in water. They were worked by hand, either by the crew or by steerage passengers who were expected to assist Pumps , four men to the Helm & nothing but a
sight of Horror before us, passed a great quantety of wreck of
difrent description; at about noon the wind moderating a little and
the squalls less frequent; at 4 P.M. the wind Moderating fast & the
sea falling a little, though still very high & cross, hove her too under a
close reeft Main, cleared the decks as much as we could, but the crew
nearly wore out with fatigue, & two layd up intierly, I had now made
my mind up to run for the first port I could get to in France, so soon
as I could get the Fore yard fisht, saw several Vessels that had bore up
with us more or lessdistresed, & I am fearfull for some that I saw
on the comensment of the gale, they appearing to labour heavy when
I was making fine weather of it, & I must confes that the John Pirie
is without any exception the finest sea boat I ever was at sea in, or
els she would not now be in exsistance, on Wednesday got the Foreyard
fisht & across, bent a New Fore Topsail, the wind came from the
Southward, made all sail I could for England, on Thursday got good sights
for the Chronomiter, (which is a most excellent one) also a good
Meridian altitude is a method of astronomical navigation used to calculate ones latitude on earth, in this case the latitude of a ship at sea. Using a nautical almanac to determine an estimated time of the meridian altitude of a planet or star, a ship’s captain would then use a sextant to track the object’s altitude for a few minutes before and during its pass through the meridian (in the case of the sun this was usually at noon). Meridianal Altitude , shaped my course for the Lizard point, past
Ushant about 2 Oclock P.M –, light winds during the night, but in
the morning freshning again to a gale, & getting very thick, could not
see two miles ahead, run within a few miles of the Lizard, but could not
see it, hove too about 2 P.M & on the flood tide, about 6 P.M the wind
shifted round in a heavy squall to NNWt & cleared up when I found
myself not more than five miles off Falmouth Harbour, but blowing
so hard could not carry sail to get in, bore up for Plymouth, at daylight
was close in to Plymouth but again blown out, it blowing at the
time tremendously from the North, I then run close round the
Start point where I got a To navigate difficult stretches of water, ships took pilots on board. Pilots were coastal navigators with knowledge of their local waters and they captained the ship through the channel or harbour Pilot , and came safe to an Anchor at Dartmouth,
having the Carpenter & two men layd up, the Ships’ mates were either first, second or third officers who came directly under the command of the Captain. Mates were responsible for supervising watches, crew, navigation and safety equipment, and sometimes even served as the ship’s doctor Mate  scearsly able to moove
myself not much better, & had I remaind two days longer at sea, I should
not had a man to stand the deck, I have not had two fine day all the month
of March,

Waiting you orders allow me most respectfully
to subscribe my self

Yours & the Company’s

Most Obt humbl servt

George Martin

[ Read the full journal for: Wednesday 6 April 1836 ]


Wednesday 6 April 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Letter from Martin to Angas

Dartmouth, April 6th 1836

To /

G.F. Angas Esqr

Sir

I have the pleasure to acknowledge receipt
of your letter, last evening, dated the 4th, when I wrote you on
last saturday, it was late, & having but just come to an Anchor,
being at the time much fatigued, not having been in a bed for
nearly ten days, you will pardon my not writing you at the time
all particulars, which by your leave I will now endeavour to do –

The following day being Sunday, I requested all the Passengers
with some of the crew, to come on shore to church, to render thanks
for our safe delivery from the dangers we had escaped; when to my
great surprice one of them (Steven Session) has absconded & I have
not seen or heard of him since, he being completely terified to death
at the sea, & which I dont wonder at, I am sorry that he is gon, as
he was one of the best of the company’s servants on board, one of the
crew has also run away, the name of wood, but as he was a useless
fellow I have not made any serch for him, but has shipt another in
his place, the carpenter & the cook I am afraid they will not be sufiscantly
recovered to take to sea with me, therefor beg you will not Pay
the Carpenters note that I gave in London, and indeed it would be
a great benifet to the company to get clear of hime, for he is a
very useless and good for nothing fellow, & not by any means worth half
his Wages –; should you see Mr Simpson Father of my second mate, you
give very great hopes of the Prospects of his son, who I am happy to say
is a very praysworthy & promising young man, and in fact the best I
have in the Vessel, & I shall loose no oppertunity in putting him forward,
On Monday I had a To survey a ship is to inspect and determine the structural condition of it. survey , the result of which I hereby inclose
you a Copy, & am getting every thing repaird as fast as possible, & I expect
I shall be all ready by next monday, I with pleasure beg to inform you
that I have received every possible assistance & attention from Mr
Hingston of this place; and very Difrent from that received from
Mr Fox at Falmouth, who was only by chance shewn to me once
in passing, though I made it a rule to call at the Office every day we layd in that Port –
I was greatly surprised at meeting Mr Stephens in the street,
& he was eaqually surprised at meeting me, he informed me the unpleasant
situation they were placed in respecting the crew on board of the Duke
of York, I emidiately went with him & Mr Hingston on board, having
first got the The preventative service was the establishment of coastguards at numerous stations along the coast of the United Kingdom for the prevention of smuggling. It reported to Customs, which also had control of the revenue cutters which cruised off-shore. Commander of the preventetive service to follow us, with
his boats crew armed, and after having calld the men The stern or rear of a ship. Aft , questioning
them if they would get the Vessel underweigh, one of them being a
spokesman or ringleader, answared for the whol, & sayd they would not
without being put on Monthly Wages, finding it useless to contend with
them, I persuaded Captn Morgan, to Make an example of him
in the first place, to the utmost extent of the law, to see how that
would work with the rest, & which I am happy to say had the desired
effect, for Captn Morgan acordingly gave him in charge of the Naval
Officer, who very kindly offerd every assistance, & he was taken before
a Majistrate, I attended with Mr Stephens & the mate; where he
was sentenced to 21 days hard labour in Exceter Prison, two of the
crew having run away, the remainder very peasably went to their
duty, & to day (Wednesday) after having settled their afairs at Bricksham
I saw her leave the Bay with the wind NNWt & fine weather,
but the wind is since changed to West, and no good prospect before
them, the glasses falling very much, Mr Stephens requested me to
write you of their sailing; he being very much fatigued, having from
from fatigue and angsiety not had a nights rest for some time, but
will write you before he get clear of the channel, if the weather
permits, he has wrote me a letter, the copy of which I have also
inclosed, should you aprove of those directions be so good as to
write me word, or any other advice you can favour me under
the present cercomstances, which shall be most punctualy be attended
to, as far as my humble abillities goes –
I beg to complain of the Person who supplyd the sugar &c
in the first place it is not sugar a tall, but apears to me to be
some rotten stuff taken out of the bottoms of Molasses cask, the
smell is past bearing, the loaf cheese is not worth the porterage,
nor is the quantety in either package I have yet oppend
of Porter wine or Brandy, and about half the A dark-brown, bitter beer brewed from charred or browned malt, thought originally to have been made especially for porters. Porter in small wine Bottles,
the Vinegar also very bad –; this complaint dont rest with me alone, but
Mr Stephens requested me particularly to write about it, informing you
that it was the same case with the Duke of York —
I also beg to complain of the muskets sent on board for the use
of the Vessel, not one in four are the locks of any use, & I beg to
asure you, that I have never had any of so bad a quallity to trade,
with the savages of the south sea Islands –
When you was absent, during my stay at Falmouth, I wrote
several times begging the favour to send me an Invoice of the Articles of clothing and bedding supplied or sold to sailors. Slops &
Tobacco, but have never received an answer –, I will feel greatly
obliged if you will be so kind as to order it to be sent, as I dont
know what to charge the men for them
Waiting you orders allow me most respectfully
to subscribe my self

Yours & the Company’s

Most Obedient humble servant – a common form of ending business letters.

George Martin

[ Read the full journal for: Wednesday 6 April 1836 ]


Friday 8 April 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

We have had variable Weather since Tuesday, and we sent our 5 remaining Sheep, on Shore this Morng to recover themselves a little from the effects of the late disastrous Weather, which has made them very sickly, and weak  ___________

[ Read the full journal for: Friday 8 April 1836 ]


Sunday 10 April 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Several of our People went on Shore, to Church, during the Day,  _______  Two of the Crew had got on Shore last Night, and no doubt have absconded, one of them is the Cook, the other is an able Seaman, call’d James Cantilian  ____________

[ Read the full journal for: Sunday 10 April 1836 ]


Wednesday 13 April 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

During this Afternoon we got on board, 2 Rams
2 Ewes, 1 Sow, 1 Boar, and 4 small pork Pigs,
also a lot of Fowls, and 3 Turkeys, besides 3 Bags
of Oats, 3 Bags of Barley, and a quantity of A swede or yellow turnip. Swe-
-dish Turnips
  _____________

[ Read the full journal for: Wednesday 13 April 1836 ]


Friday 15 April 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Yestdy we got on board 11 Bundles of Hay, and this Afternoon have got back the 5 Ewes, that were sent on Shore to recruit themselves, but one of the poor Animals is in a most deplorable condition, being as lean as Wood, and so very lame’d that it can scarcely put a Foot to [...]

[ Read the full journal for: Friday 15 April 1836 ]


Saturday 16 April 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

The repairs of our Vessel being completed, and every
thing got on board, with two fresh Sailor’s, and a Cook,
to fill the situations of those who decamp’d (but no One
in the room of Stephen Sessions), we When the crew weigh anchor they raise or lift it from the ocean floor so they can put the ship in motion. weigh’d Anchor at
10½, A,M, and proceeded to Sea once more, with the Wind
from S,S,W, which contd until 5, P,M when a fine
Breeze sprang up from the Northward, and remain’d so
all Night  ________  In the Afternoon our Capt order’d the
Ewe to be kill’d, which I spoke of Yestdy, as it was in
extreme Misery, and at 4 P,M, one of the Turkey’s,
unfortunately flew overboard and was drown’d  _____

[ Read the full journal for: Saturday 16 April 1836 ]


Sunday 17 April 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

The Wind still remains Northerly, and at 9, A,M, we saw the Lizard Point, about 10 Miles distant  _________

[ Read the full journal for: Sunday 17 April 1836 ]


Monday 18 April 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

The Wind contd from the North all Night, but at 4, A,M, it veer’d round to N,W, which remain’d untill Noon, and then again backed to the Northward, in a gentle Breeze, that lasted all Day  ____________

[ Read the full journal for: Monday 18 April 1836 ]


Wednesday 20 April 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

The Weather has been very fine since Monday, with light Airs of Wind, veering about from North, to W,S,W, and sometimes nearly a Calm, until 6, P,M, when a clever Breeze sprang up from N,N,E  _________

[ Read the full journal for: Wednesday 20 April 1836 ]


Thursday 21 April 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

The Wind contd all Night from N,E, but at Day-light
it lower’d into a gentle Air, which kept shifting about
from North to West, all Day  _______  At 6, P,M, we
came in sight of part of a Wreck, consisting of a
lower Mast, and Yards are horizontal poles that are suspended from the masts to support and spread the square sails. They are basically set square to the ship’s centre line but the angle can be adjusted to suit the direction of the wind. Yard , a top Mast and Yard,  ___  with
a few Spar’s,  ___  round Top,  ___  and the remnant of
Sails, Rigging, &c, all of which had no doubt,
been carried away from some unfortunate Vessel, in
the awful Gales of the 27th, 28th,, Ult is short for Ultimo which means ‘of last month’. Ult , We took only
One Spar, as our Decks, are already too much ‘Lumbered’ is an informal term mainly used in Britain to refer to someone being burdened with a thing, or things, unwanted. In shipping terminology, ‘much lumbered’ or ‘lumbered with’ were sometimes used to describe the state of decks that had become cluttered with cargo and other objects during storms. lumberd ,
for stowing any more,  __  but they will be a good prize, to
a Ship, that can make room for them  __________

[ Read the full journal for: Thursday 21 April 1836 ]


Saturday 23 April 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

The weather has contd uncommon fine since Thursday,
and Wind veering about from West, to North, sometimes
being a smart Breeze, and at other times nearly a Without wind. Calm ,
At Noon we To speak a ship is to communicate with it by voice or signals spoke a Schooner, call’d the New-Jane,
of Plymouth, bound to Liverpool, the Capt of which
promised to To record meeting another ship upon arrival in port. In one case, the South Australian Company Directors learnt at their meeting of 17 May that the John Pirie had been encountered on 23 April in latitude 42E north, longitude 12E west. report us, on his arrival there  _____

[ Read the full journal for: Saturday 23 April 1836 ]


Sunday 24 April 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

We have had a remarkable clever Breeze, all last
Night, and to Day, from N,E, which has sent our
Vessel along at the Rate of 6, and 8 The speed of ship or wind in nautical miles per hour. A float is dropped overboard and the speed is indicated by the rate at which the ship sails away from it. Spacing of knots in the log-line connected to the float is in same proportion to a mile as the half-minute sandglass used is to an hour, thus the number knots counted off in the time is the speed in knots Knots an Hour  _____

[ Read the full journal for: Sunday 24 April 1836 ]


Wednesday 27 April 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

The Weather has remain’d uncommonly fine since Sunday,
accompd with a smart Breeze from N,E, and at Day
light this Morng we could just discern the tops of
the high Lands, in the Island of Porto-Santo,
shortly after which, saw the Island of Madeira, and
before it was dark, passed through between them, keep-
ing Porto-Santo, with a few Islands called the
Desertas, on our The old term for the left hand side of a ship looking forward. The right hand side is starboard. To avoid mis-hearing an order, it is now referred to as ‘port’. larboard , and Madeira on the The starboard is the right side of a ship or a boat perceived by a person on board facing the bow (front).The left side was originally called ‘larboard’ but in the early nineteenth century that term was replaced by ‘port’ to avoid the crew mis-hearing an order. The change was made official in 1844. star-
board
 Side  _______  In the grey of the Eveng we got
sight of a Whale, about 3 Miles from us, it was spou-
-ting up Water to a great height in the Air  _______

[ Read the full journal for: Wednesday 27 April 1836 ]


Thursday 28 April 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

There is less Wind to Day, than has been for the last few Days, but it still continues from N,E, and the Weather feels so much warmer, that we had the Wool cliped off our Sheep this Morng ___________

[ Read the full journal for: Thursday 28 April 1836 ]


Friday 29 April 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

At Noon we saw the Island of Palma, it was then nearly abeam of us on the larboard side, and about 20 Miles, distant  _____  There has been a gentle little Breeze all last Night and to Day, but which still remains right Aft, and sends us along, at the Rate of 4, or 5, Miles [...]

[ Read the full journal for: Friday 29 April 1836 ]


Saturday 30 April 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

This Morng all the Chests, Bedding, &c, belonging
to the Passenger’s, were got upon Deck to Air, and
in the mean time the The area of between-decks occupied by steerage passengers, that is, those travelling at the cheapest rate. Steerage was thoroughly cleansed,
as the Weather is now getting very warm  _______

[ Read the full journal for: Saturday 30 April 1836 ]


Tuesday 3 May 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

We have had beautiful Weather, with a moderate Breeze from the N,E, since Saturday, but which increased last Night to a fine fresh Breeze from E,N,E, and has contd all this Day, sending our Vessel along, at the Rate of 6, and 8, Knots an Hour, and as we were in between 22E, and 23E, [...]

[ Read the full journal for: Tuesday 3 May 1836 ]


Friday 6 May 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

We have had a smart Breeze from E,N,E, since Tuesday with delightful Weather, and this Day at Noon, were abreast of St Antonio, one of the Cape Verd, Islands which was about 15 Miles distant, on the larboard Side, we then had a Calm, that contd for about an Hour, after which a clever Breeze [...]

[ Read the full journal for: Friday 6 May 1836 ]


Saturday 7 May 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

There has been a fresh Breeze all Night from E,N,E,
and at 8, A,M, took a Seafarers reduce sails in strong winds so that ships can move more safely and comfortably. Sails are made with rows of small ropes attached to them and these are tied around spars to reduce the amount of sail exposed to the wind. The amount of sail taken in by securing one set of ropes is called a reef. The action of reducing sails is called reefing and the knot that is used to tie the ropes is called a reef knot. In light winds all the reefs are taken out and the full size of the sail is exposed to draw full power from the wind. reef in the The top sail on a foremast. Fore-top Sail , for the
first time since leaving Dartmouth, and at 11, A,M, had
the Islands of Brava and Fogo, (two of the Cape Verde)
right abeam of us, the former about 20, and the latter
40 Miles distant, on the larboard Side, it then fell
Without wind. Calm , and remain’d so untill the Eveng, during which,
the heat was excessive  ____  We saw a great number
of A family of marine fish (Exocoetidae family) consisting on some 64 species. The species’ defining feature is their wing-like pectoral fins used for gliding above the water’s surface for up to 50 metres. Flying fish live in all oceans, but are particularly prevalent in warm tropical and sub-tropical waters. flying Fish , this Morng and in the Afternoon were
follow’d by a Shark, that broke two fishing Lines, and
a strong Hook, when One of the Sailors found a proper
Shark-hook, on to which he put a piece of Pork,
for Bait, and gave it to the Short for Captain. Capt , who in his eagerness
to catch the Fish, did not notice, that there was no Line
made fast to it, but immediately threw it overboard, which
caused a hearty Laugh, and most probably saved the Sharks
life, for we could not find another One, strong enough
to hold him   ___________

[ Read the full journal for: Saturday 7 May 1836 ]


Sunday 8 May 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

At 11, O’Clock last Night a gentle Air sprang up from E,N,E, which at 8, A,M, had increased to a smart Breeze that contd all this Day,  _______   We have seen an im- -mense number of flying Fish, during the Day, three or four of which, flew upon our Decks, they were follow’d by several [...]

[ Read the full journal for: Sunday 8 May 1836 ]


Friday 13 May 1836

[, on board the wrote.]


At 8, A,M, a Vessel To ‘heave to’ is to reduce a ship’s sails and adjust them so they counteract each other and stop the ship making progress. It is a safety measure used to deal with strong winds. hove in sight astern (being the first
we have seen since the 28th Abbreviation for ultimo, of last month. Ult , She sailed remarkably
fast, and was soon near enough, for us to make her out,
to be a suspicious looking A small vessel of two or more masts whose principle sails are fore-and-aft. Schooner , so all our A muzzle-loaded, smooth bore long gun, fired from the shoulder. Muskets
&c, were got ready, in case of being attacked, we therefore
To hoist and display the ship’s flag. hoisted our Colours , when She was about 2, or 3, Miles, off us,
and which, in the course of ¼ of an Hour, was answer’d by
her, showing the Flag of Portugal, She then hauled close
to the Wind, and was soon out of sight, there is little doubt
but She was either a A ship used for piracy, the act of robbery or violence on the high seas. Pirate , or A ship transporting slaves for sale in a suitable market. Slave Vessel ,   ______

[ Read the full journal for: Friday 13 May 1836 ]


Saturday 14 May 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

There has been a light Air of Wind, all Night, from E,N,E,
but at 8, A,M, it became quite Without wind. Calm , and the heat was
really intolerable untill 2, P,M, at which time, a gentle Breeze
sprang up again from E,N,E, which made it a little more
cool, but at 6, P,M, we had another Without wind. Calm    ______   Most of
the Passengers have slept upon Deck, every Night, for
the last Week, as the The area of between-decks occupied by steerage passengers, that is, those travelling at the cheapest rate. Steerage is like a hot Oven,  ______
We have seen a great number of A porpoise is a small marine mammal related to whales and dolphins. The word ‘porpoise’ has sometimes been used by sailors and fishermen to refer to any small dolphin. Porpoises , and other large
Fish, swiming about the Vessel, for several Days past, but
have never been able to catch One, untill this Morng, when
at 6, O’Clock, (having made a Shark-hook out of an Iron
Bolt,) we had the pleasure to haul in One of these voracious
Animals, which was afterwards Cook’d, and consider’d a great
treat by the People, who it served to every Meal, du-
-ring the Day   _____________

[ Read the full journal for: Saturday 14 May 1836 ]


Monday 16 May 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

…   On Saturday Night, and
last Night, there was a great deal of Lightning, with
a little Thunder, and some Rain, which is the first
we have had since leaving England, but at 5, P,M,
there was a heavy Shower, so that the Passengers got
a quantity to Wash their Clothing with   _________
At 9, A,M, saw a Vessel a long way Astern, for which
we shortend Sail, and at 4, P,M, she came up to us,
and proved to be a fine Dutch Ships were generally classed by the way they were rigged for sail. A bark (also spelt barque) had: three masts, square sails on the front or forward mast square sails on the middle or main mast, and fore-and-aft sails on the back or mizzen mast. They were relatively small sailing ships in the 1830s.Barque, well Arm’d
call’d the Maria, and bound to Batavia, there were
several Soldiers on board of her   _________

[ Read the full journal for: Monday 16 May 1836 ]


Tuesday 17 May 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

We have had light, variable spots of Wind, and Calm’s during the Night, but at 7, A,M, a clever Breeze, arose from the S,S,E, that has lasted the whole Day, and cool’d the Air considerably   _______

[ Read the full journal for: Tuesday 17 May 1836 ]


Saturday 21 May 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

We have contd to enjoy a fine Breeze, since Tuesday, varying from S,S,E to South, and at 8, O’Clock, last Night, cross’d the Equinoctial Line, in about 18E30′, West Long, and without any of us undergoing the Shaving operation, but instead of which, the People got each a Glass of Grog, this Afternoon   _______ At [...]

[ Read the full journal for: Saturday 21 May 1836 ]


Tuesday 24 May 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

The Wind and Weather, has remain’d much about the same, as is mention’d on Saturday, untill this Afternoon, when it became Squally, and accompd by heavy Showers of Rain, during which the Wind kept shifting from South, to E,S,E, but toward Eveng it settled into a fine steady Breeze from S,E, with clear Weather   __________

[ Read the full journal for: Tuesday 24 May 1836 ]


Thursday 26 May 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

The Wind has contd from the S,Eastward, since Tuesday,
accompd with most beautiful Weather   _______
This Afternoon a disagreeable Quarrel took place between
Mr Davies, (our First officer directly coming under the command of the captain. Ships’ Mates were responsible for supervising watches, crew, navigation and safety equipment, and sometimes even served as the ship’s doctor. chief Mate ) and the Carpenter,  ___
It appears the latter wanted some Nails, when the Mate
told him to be more careful of the Provision of food, drink, medical comforts, and equipment for all passengers and crew to survive the voyage. Ships Stores , and
charged him with having recd a great many things in
London, of which he could give no account, this was
passionately denied by the Carpenter, and caused very
angry Words, that soon produced Blows, however they
were parted without having hurt each other much, after
which Capt Martin coincided with the Mate, and blamed
the Carpenter for not fulfiling his duty, in many respects,
but all of which the latter strongly denied, and complain’d
of having recd very hard usage, ever since leaving England,
however, after making use of very strong Language, to each
other, they separated mutually displeased   _________

[ Read the full journal for: Thursday 26 May 1836 ]


Sunday 29 May 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

We have had a clever little Breeze from S,E, since Thursday and very fine Weather, until yestdy Eveng at 6, O’Clock, when it became rather Squally, accompd by heavy Showers of Rain, and this Morng, at 8, O’Clock, a reef was taken in the Fore top Sail, as the Wind had then increased to a [...]

[ Read the full journal for: Sunday 29 May 1836 ]


Monday 30 May 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

There was a strong Breeze all last Night, from
E,S,E, and during which the Rather than a foresail permanently secured to the fore yard, the John Pirie had a square-sail which was hoisted to the yard when required. Square-sail , & A triangular sail carried on a rope stay running between the foremast and the jib boom, an extension of the bowsprit. Jib , were
taken in,  and The mainsail is the lowest sail on the mainmast, as is the fore-sail on the foremast. Main sail Seafarers reduce sails in strong winds so that ships can move more safely and comfortably. Sails are made with rows of small ropes attached to them and these are tied around spars to reduce the amount of sail exposed to the wind. The amount of sail taken in by securing one set of ropes is called a reef. The action of reducing sails is called reefing and the knot that is used to tie the ropes is called a reef knot. In light winds all the reefs are taken out and the full size of the sail is exposed to draw full power from the wind. reef’d , as our Vessel labour’d very
heavy, against an uncommon strong head Sea, which
causes her to leak very much indeed,   ___   At 10, A,M,
while most of our People were assembled on the The quareterdeck was the deck between the main mast and the back of the ship.It was sometimes raised to give more headroom to the cabins below it. In sailing ships the quarterdeck was the place from which the captain commanded the ship.It was the custom in most ships that only officers would use the quarterdeck. The crew would only go there for specific duties or to take instructions. Quarter deck ,
it being the dryest place on the Decks, Our Vessel was struck
by the A descriptive term for a sharp crest resulting from two waves crossing each other, just as it can apply to the elevated region where several mountain-chains meet. Knot of a Sea , that came right over this favourite
Spot, giving all of us a regular good ducking, but the
poor Tom-Cat, got such a fright by the shock, as to jump
from the weather side of the Deck, clean over the lee Sides of a ship raised above deck level to protect objects and crew. Bulwark
into the Sea, where he met a water’y Grave   ________
At Noon the Wind became more moderate, and at 11, P,M,
after a pelting Shower of Rain, it shifted to about due
East, and clear Weather

[ Read the full journal for: Monday 30 May 1836 ]


Wednesday 1 June 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

The Wind has contd from due East, since Monday Night, accompd with fine Weather, untill this Eveng at 8, O’Clock, when it became Squally, with heavy Rain, that lasted untill 10, P,M, and then again clear’d up,  _______

[ Read the full journal for: Wednesday 1 June 1836 ]


Thursday 2 June 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

We have had very fine Weather, since the Rain, last Night
and this Morng was beautifully clear and bright, but at
7, A,M, a brawl took place in the The area of between-decks occupied by steerage passengers, that is, those travelling at the cheapest rate. Steerage , between
Mrs Chandler, and the Messrs Powell, in which the
most disgusting and aggravating Language, was made
use of by both Parties, towards each other, at length
Chas Chandler (who had been on Deck, during all this uproar)
went down to them, and endeavourd to get his Wife pacified,
but it was all in vain, for shortly afterwards She came upon
Deck, with a Bundle of Clothes in her Arm’s, and made
towards the Ship’s side, threatening to drown herself, but
was prevented doing so, by the Captain catching hold of her,
and was made to go below again by the assistance of her
Husband, but while we were at Breakfast, the Helmsman
alarm’d us very much, by crying Out, that a Woman had
jump’d overboard, when rushing upon Deck, we saw
the poor miserable Wretch strugling in the Sea, astern
of the Vessel, when immediately tacking Ship, we suc-
-ceeded in getting her aboard again, but almost in a
lifeless state, having been in the Water, at least 10, minutes,
however the usual remedies for recovering Person’s, apparantly
drown’d, were made use of, and I am happy to say, they
had the desired affect, for She is greatly recover’d, although
still uncommonly Weak, with severe pains in her inside,
and likewise in her Head   _______   It appears that while
we were in the Cabin, she took the opportunity of coming
on Deck, with the Bundle still in her Arm’s, and went
to the fore part of the Vessel, in a terrible rage, but
at which both her Husband, and others who were present,
took little notice, thinking the Woman, could not actually
mean to destroy herself, however, when at the The shrouds supporting the masts pass over channels, broad planks projecting out from the ship’s side, and are tied back to the hull with chains. Thus it is for instance convenient to stand on the channel ‘in the chains’ when finding the depth of water. fore-Chains
She suddenly stop’d, threw the Bundle overboard, and
giving a momentary glance at Chandler, She sprang
over the Sides of a ship raised above deck level to protect objects and crew. Bulwark herself,  to the horror, and amazement
of all who beheld the sight,   ________    The temper of
this Woman is most violent, and when in a passion, She
is shockingly wicked, while her Husband, Chas Chandler,
appears to be a very decent, quiet, sort of Man, for whom
I am truly sorry, but yet, She is not without some
good properties, having always taken great pains to
keep both herself and Children, neat and clean, but She
is now with scarsely a Rag to put on her Back, having
thrown almost the whole of her Clothes into the Sea, that
no other Woman (her Husband might take to Wife) should
have the satisfaction of wearing them, after She was
gone, they have four fine Children, the oldest of which
is a little Girl 10, years of Age, and the youngest about
about 12 Months   __________
At Noon we got sight of the Island of Trinidad
right ahead, bearing about S,W by S, and not less
than 50 Miles distant   ___   The Wind has been va-
-rying since Noon, with light Airs, from E,S,E to South,

[ Read the full journal for: Thursday 2 June 1836 ]


Friday 3 June 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

The same kind of light variable Winds, has contd all Night and the whole of this Day, as we had Yestdy __   at 4 A M were abreast of Trinidad, passing it to the Westward, this is a small uninhabited barren Island, situated in 20E32′ S, Lat, and 29E9’ West Long, at 6, P,M, it bore [...]

[ Read the full journal for: Friday 3 June 1836 ]


Saturday 4 June 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

We still contd to have light and variable Winds to the
close of this Day  __   but at 8, A,M, were within 2 Miles
of the Vessel that was seen Yestdy at which time, She
To hoist and display the ship’s flag. hoisted her Colour’s and began to To signalise is to make contact by use of signal flags. Signalize , that was
duly answer’d by us, however at Noon, She commenced
To signalise is to make contact by use of signal flags. signalizeing again, but being then to The direction from which the wind blows. The other direction is termed ‘leeward’. Windward of her
we could not see them distinctly, and therefore bore down
towards her, so as to get within hail, but this it appeared
greatly alarm’d them, as their Capt inform’d us, that seeing
so many People on Deck, he did not like our appearance
at all, and had got everything ready for Action, if required,
of which they soon gave us a proof, and by discharging a lot
of A muzzle-loaded, smooth bore long gun, fired from the shoulder. Muskets , and two A sea-term for cannon. great Gun’s , She was a pretty
little A sailing vessel with two square-rigged masts. Brig , called the Mary, of Leith, bound to the Isle
of France,  __________    At 5 P,M, we saw a Whale
not more than a Mile off, playing about, and spouting
Water up into the Air   _________

[ Read the full journal for: Saturday 4 June 1836 ]


Monday 6 June 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

The Weather remain’d very fine all Yestdy, untill 11, P,M,
when it came on to blow a heavy Gale of Wind, from S,E,
so strong that the A sail immediately above the lowermost sail of a mast and supported by a topmast.Fore top SailThe topgallant mast (pronounced and sometimes written t’gallant) is the mast immediately above the topmast, or an extension of the topmast. See ships’ rigging for further discussion.Top gallt SailA triangular sail carried on a rope stay running between the foremast and the jib boom, an extension of the bowsprit.Jib,
and Rather than a foresail permanently secured to the fore yard, the John Pirie had a square-sail which was hoisted to the yard when required.Square sail, were taken in, and the The mainsail is the lowest sail on the mainmast, as is the fore-sail on the foremast.Main sail,
close Seafarers reduce sails in strong winds so that ships can move more safely and comfortably. Sails are made with rows of small ropes attached to them and these are tied around spars to reduce the amount of sail exposed to the wind. The amount of sail taken in by securing one set of ropes is called a reef. The action of reducing sails is called reefing and the knot that is used to tie the ropes is called a reef knot. In light winds all the reefs are taken out and the full size of the sail is exposed to draw full power from the wind. reef’d, which has contd the whole of this Day, accompd
by a tremendious A cross sea arises when the waves raised by a gale continue after the wind has changed direction. Continuing changes, such as during a cyclone, may result in the waves rising up in pyramids and sending their tops perpendicularly into the air.cross jump of a Sea, that makes the
Vessel, A ship pitches when its head plunges up and down under the action of waves.pitch and roll about dreadfully, and causing
her to leak very much, being upon the The old term for the left hand side of a ship looking forward. The right hand side is starboard. To avoid mis-hearing an order, it is now referred to as ‘port’larboard Ships could not sail directly into the wind, but they could sail across it at an angle. So, to move forward in the direction of the wind they set a zigzag course, sailing across the wind at alternating angles. That procedure was called tacking.Tack   ___

[ Read the full journal for: Monday 6 June 1836 ]


Tuesday 7 June 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

The Gale contd rageing with unabated fury the whole
of last Night, but at 8, A,M, it became a little more
moderate, and the close Seafarers reduce sails in strong winds so that ships can move more safely and comfortably. Sails are made with rows of small ropes attached to them and these are tied around spars to reduce the amount of sail exposed to the wind. The amount of sail taken in by securing one set of ropes is called a reef. The action of reducing sails is called reefing and the knot that is used to tie the ropes is called a reef knot. In light winds all the reefs are taken out and the full size of the sail is exposed to draw full power from the wind. reef’d a sail immediately above the lowermost sail of a mast and supported by a topmast.Fore top Sail was set,
although the Wind, which is now due East, has still kept
blowing very strong, in the A squall is a sudden, sharp increase in wind speed.Squall’s, all this Day,
During the Night, we crossed the The imaginary line dividing the tropics from the rest of the southern hemisphere, and marking the limit of the sun’s apparent movement southwards during summer. The northern limit is the Tropic of Cancer.Line of Capricorn,
in about 29E40’ West Longitude is the distance, measured in degrees, of the meridian on which a point lies to the meridian of Greenwich. On the other side of the earth to Greenwich is a point with a longitude of both 180 degrees east and 180 degrees west.Longitude    _________

[ Read the full journal for: Tuesday 7 June 1836 ]


Thursday 9 June 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

… ________  The late high Winds have cool’d
the Air very much indeed, which is uncommonly grate-
-ful to us, after being almost stew’d Alive, for a Month,
besides making our Butter run to an Oil, and
Candles unable to stand upright, without having
props to support them   _____________

[ Read the full journal for: Thursday 9 June 1836 ]


Friday 10 June 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

During last Night, the Wind gradually veer’d round
to the Northward, and having had a fine Breeze, from
that Quarter, all this Day, we consider ourselves now to
be out of the S,E, Regular winds which move towards the equator within or near the tropics, the earth’s rotation dragging them such that in the northen hemisphere they blow from the north-eastward and in the southern from the south-eastward. Trade Winds    ___________
Mrs Chandler being greatly recover’d, from the effects
of her late attempt of drowning, the Capt has given her
Husband strict orders, that whenever She comes upon
Deck, his is to watch her closely, as it is not improbable
That She might make another attempt   _________

[ Read the full journal for: Friday 10 June 1836 ]


Saturday 11 June 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

There has been a smart Breeze all Night, and the
whole of this Day from N,N,W, causing our Vessel to
run at the rate of 7 or 8 The speed of ship or wind in nautical miles per hour. A float is dropped overboard and the speed is indicated by the rate at which the ship sails away from it. Spacing of knots in the log-line connected to the float is in same proportion to a mile as the half-minute sandglass used is to an hour, thus the number knots counted off in the time is the speed in knots. Knots an Hour, in a S,E,
direction, which Course, is something new to us, after
having been Steering to the S,Westards, ever since leaving
Dartmouth, untill the last, two or three Days

[ Read the full journal for: Saturday 11 June 1836 ]


Monday 13 June 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

… _____    I am very sorry to say Mrs Chandler is again
very Ill, having violent pains in her Side, and Head,
accompd with a dreadful Cough

[ Read the full journal for: Monday 13 June 1836 ]


Thursday 16 June 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

We have had most delightful Weather since Monday, with a gentle Air of Wind from the S,Westward, untill Yestdy Eveng when it became nearly Calm for a few Hour’s, but at 11, P,M, a fine little Breeze sprang up from N,N,W, which gradually increased towards Noon of this Day, into a smart steady Wind, sending [...]

[ Read the full journal for: Thursday 16 June 1836 ]


Saturday 18 June 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

There has been a A gentle wind, which can be described fancifully as ‘clever’, ‘smart’, ‘fine’ or ‘fresh’. clever Breeze from the N,Westward
since Thursday, during all which time we have never
gone less than from 8, to 9, The speed of ship or wind in nautical miles per hour. A float is dropped overboard and the speed is indicated by the rate at which the ship sails away from it. Spacing of knots in the log-line connected to the float is in same proportion to a mile as the half-minute sandglass used is to an hour, thus the number knots counted off in the time is the speed in knots. Knots an Hour , but this Eveng
the Wind has increased to a strong Gale, putting us under
Under suitably reduced sail in preparation for expected conditions, such as meeting a gale. snug Canvas ,   _________     Messrs Powell, and Tindall,
thought proper to have a few Blow’s, at each other Yestdy,
arising from an old Grudge between them, but they were
speedily separated, each having got a slight Wound, in
his Face   _________   This afternoon our Capt order’d
Powell, (who always stands Butcher) to kill the Sow, that
was purchased at Dartmouth, for the purpose of giving
all the People, a fresh A fresh serving of food. Mess , to-morrow   _______
Mrs Chandler still continues dangerously “Ill”, and this
Morng it was deem’d advisable to take half a Pint of
Blood from her   ________________

[ Read the full journal for: Saturday 18 June 1836 ]


Friday 24 June 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

…    ____   This Morng
at Day-light there was a Vessel abreast of us, about 3 Mls
distant, and at 9, A,M, we To hoist and display the national flag to establish that this was a British ship. hoisted our Colours , which were im-
mediately answer’d, but She being then a considerable way ahead,
very kindly To ‘heave to’ is to reduce a ship’s sails and adjust them so they counteract each other and stop the ship making progress. It is a safety measure used to deal with strong winds. hove-too , untill we got within hail of her, and
proved to be the Mary Bibby, of Liverpool, bound to Bom-
-bay, She was a neat little, full rigged Ship can be a confusing term because it actually has two meanings. Its common meaning is an ocean-going vessel that is larger than a boat. When used in that sense, a ship can be rigged in many different ways. In strict maritime usage ship also has a second meaning. It names a specific type of rig. A ship has a bowsprit and three masts and it carries square sails on all three masts. Ship , and being
only in Any dense heavy material, such as lead, placed in the hold of a ship to help weigh it down and increase stability. Ballast trim, sailed very fast, but they could
not give us any account, of the Lady Mary Pelham  ____
At 11, A,M, another Vessel came in sight, a great distance
To be any distance behind a vessel. Astern us, steering the same Course as ourselves,  ____
Those are the only Ships we have seen, since speaking
the Mary of Leith on the 4th Inst,  _________ …

[ Read the full journal for: Friday 24 June 1836 ]


Monday 27 June 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

… __________    Mrs Chandler con-
-tinues getting worse every Day, in despite of all the
care and attention that is paid to her, for I am sure
She does not want any thing, that can be obtain’d on
board of this Vessel, which is thought advisable for her
to take, such as Gruel, Sago, Wine, Medicine &c,
but She is quite delirious at intervals, and the smell
that comes from her Breath, is uncommonly strong, and
most disagreeably sickening   __________

[ Read the full journal for: Monday 27 June 1836 ]


Wednesday 29 June 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

There has been a gentle Air of Wind, with occasional Calm’s, since Monday Night, untill this Morng at 7 O’Clock, when it veer’d round in a smart little Breeze, from S,E, which kept increasing all Day, and at 8, P,M, caused a reef to be taken in the Sails  _____   Our Sheep consumed the last [...]

[ Read the full journal for: Wednesday 29 June 1836 ]


Thursday 30 June 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

We have had a strong Wind all Night, and at 7, A,M, it flew round to the N,Eastward, but contd Squally the whole Day, accompd by a great deal of Rain, and terrible cross Jump of a Sea,    _________    At 8 P,M, our Vessel was (by calculation) in the same Parallel of Longitude as the [...]

[ Read the full journal for: Thursday 30 June 1836 ]


Friday 1 July 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

… In the very height of the Gale, about 8, P,M, Mrs Chan-
-dler departed this Life, after having endured very much indeed,
by severe Pain’s, which for the last two or three Days,
have been principally in her Head and Breast,   _____
She was quite sensible a few Minutes before her Death,
and seem’d in a very despondent state of Mind, respecting
the future Welfare of her Soul, however, we may rest per-
-fectly satisfied that the Lord, will measure out, the rewards
of all his Creatures, in the strictest Scale of Justice, and
therefore it does not become us to Judge any One, but trust
to the unerring wisdom of our merciful Redeemer

[ Read the full journal for: Friday 1 July 1836 ]


Saturday 2 July 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

The Wind gradually lower’d after Midnight, and at 8, A,M, was
nearly a Without wind. Calm , with the most beautiful clear Sky, but the Sea
still very rough   ________    At which time the Body of Mrs
Chandler was committed to the Deep, it was sew’d up in two or
three old Sack’s, with a weight of old Iron, (in a Bag), made
fast to the Feet, for the purpose of making it sink  _______
On this melancholly occasion, all the People were musterd on
the The quareterdeck was the deck between the main mast and the back of the ship.It was sometimes raised to give more headroom to the cabins below it. In sailing ships the quarterdeck was the place from which the captain commanded the ship.It was the custom in most ships that only officers would use the quarterdeck. The crew would only go there for specific duties or to take instructions. Quarter Deck , where the Capt read over the Burial service
of the Church of England,  ______    It is rather singular that
it was 8, O’Clock in the Morng of June 2d when this Woman
threw herself into the Sea, and at the same Hour of July 2d
her Remains were thrown overboard, and both Morngs being
remarkably bright and clear, after having had heavy Rain,
and Wind, the previous Night   _______     …

[ Read the full journal for: Saturday 2 July 1836 ]


Tuesday 5 July 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

We have had a smart Northerly Breeze, ever since Saturday, with fine Weather, untill 10, O’Clock last Night, when the Wind shifted to W,N,W, and blew a heavy Gale, which has contd the whole of this Day, accompd with pelting Shower’s, of Rain, and an exceeding rough Sea   _________

[ Read the full journal for: Tuesday 5 July 1836 ]


Thursday 7 July 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

At 10, O’Clock, on Tuesday Night, the weather became quite moderate, and sometimes nearly a Calm, that lasted untill 10, O’Clock, last Night, when a smart little Breeze, sprang up from N,W, but which kept increasing untill it blew a strong Gale, and at 4, A,M, the Sails were reef’d  ___

[ Read the full journal for: Thursday 7 July 1836 ]


Friday 8 July 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

The Wind contd to blow very heavy, the whole of Yestdy and last Night, from the N,Westward, but at 2, A,M, it veer’d round to S,W, in a sudden Squall, and has re- -main’d in that Art all Day, however it became a great deal more moderate towards Noon, and at 10, P,M, had lower’d [...]

[ Read the full journal for: Friday 8 July 1836 ]


Saturday 9 July 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

We had light variable Airs of Wind, and Calm’s, all Night, but at 6, A,M, a gentle Breeze, arose from the Northward, which gradually freshen’d untill it blew very strong, and at 4, P,M, the Sails were reef’d  ___ There has been an uncommon heavy Sea, sweeping along from the S,Westward, these last two Days, [...]

[ Read the full journal for: Saturday 9 July 1836 ]


Wednesday 20 July 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

The Wind contd Squally from the S,W, accompd
with cold Weather, untill last Night, when it became
moderate, and veer’d round to South, but has been
nearly a Calm, the whole of this Day  ________
On Monday we got a place, contrived down below, for
the two poor Ram’s (where the Carpenter, Second Mate,
and T, Waldron, live) as there is not hieght enough, in
the Pen’s for them to stand, without chafeing their Backs
against the top part of it, and during the many Gales
of Wind, that we have lately experienced, they have been
very much bruised, by tumbling about, upon the Deck’s,
On Monday our Cook likewise took very Ill, of Pains, in all
his Limbs,  ____   and Yestdy the chief Mate, also became
very unwell, they are both confined to their Beds,  _____
But their is One of our Passenger’s, call’d James Jones, who
has been almost, a constant Customer, to the Medicine Chest,
ever since we left Dartmouth   ______________

[ Read the full journal for: Wednesday 20 July 1836 ]


Thursday 28 July 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

The Rams are uncommonly weak, not having
taken any nourishment, for the last 10 Days, except
what has been given to them, by means of a Bottle, and
the little Ewes, have again suffer’d, most severely in the
late Gales, indeed it is really astonishing, how these
poor Animals survive, after enduring so many hardships
being almost continually Wet, and Cold, besides when the
Sea’s, some rushing upon the Deck, in Gales of Wind,
they are for a while, almost overhead in Water, and dread-
-fully knocked about, by the violent rolling, and pitching
of the Vessel

[ Read the full journal for: Thursday 28 July 1836 ]


Saturday 30 July 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

The Rain contd without the least intermission, all Thursday Night, but at 6, A,M, of Yestdy it clear’d up, Yet, still remains very unsettled, sometimes We have it fine, and pleasant, for an Hour, or two, together, then a black Cloud will come, sweeping over our Heads, in a violent Squall, from the Westward, pelting [...]

[ Read the full journal for: Saturday 30 July 1836 ]


Sunday 7 August 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

Our Cook is quite recover’d again, and resumed his occu-
-pation on Friday  ________    During his illness, the
Cooking has been done by Joseph Jones, who has been
very useful indeed, in many respects, since we left
Dartmouth, having fill’d, even the situation of a
Seaman, at two or three different times, for 10, or 12,
Days together, in the place of Sailors, that have been
unwell, and I understand, that Capt Martin, intends
to remunerate him, for his services  ___   besides this
Young Man, I consider that, Halford, Chandler,
Powell, and Tindal, have been the most industrious
and willing, of all the Company’s servants, during
our Passage, that are on board, of this Vessel  ____

[ Read the full journal for: Sunday 7 August 1836 ]


Tuesday 9 August 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

During all Sunday Night, the Wind kept veering round, and Yestdy Morng became due South, from which Art, we contd to have a clever Breeze, untill this Morng when it lower’d to a gentle Air, that remain’d untill 4, P,M, and then fell nearly a Calm   _____________ Thos Waldron has been very ill indeed, of Dysentery, ever since [...]

[ Read the full journal for: Tuesday 9 August 1836 ]


Friday 12 August 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

We had light variable Airs, and Calm’s, all Tuesday Night, but on Wednesday Morng, a gentle Breeze, sprang up from N,N,E, which kept increasing untill the Eveng, and then blew very strong from N,E, causing a reef to be taken in the Sails at 6,P,M,  ___  however at Noon of Yestdy it lower’d a little, [...]

[ Read the full journal for: Friday 12 August 1836 ]


Monday 15 August 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

At 11, O’Clock, on Friday Night, we had a dead Calm, that contd untill 6, A,M, of Saturday, when a gentle Breeze sprang up from the Southward, but did not remain long, and since which time, there has been nothing but Calm’s with occasional light and variable Wind’s, untill Yestdy at Noon, when a gentle [...]

[ Read the full journal for: Monday 15 August 1836 ]


Tuesday 16 August 1836

[, on board the wrote.]

________   At 9, A,M, we rounded Point
Marsden, and had the pleasure of seeing two Barques
at Anchor in “Nepean Bay”, which proves to be
the “Duke of York”, and “Lady Mary Pelham’,
they had arrd about 3 Weeks before us  ____
In the course of an Hour, we were visited by
Sml Stephens Esqr, C,M, [Company Manager] who was saluted with
three times three Cheer’s, and shortly afterwards a
Boat came from each of the Vessels, in one of
which was Capt Morgan of the “Duke of York”, who
undertook to be our Pilot, and at 3, P,M, we were
safely Anchor’d in a well shelter’d Roadstead, not
more than a Mile, distant from the Shore, and
right abreast, of the Company’s Tents, at the “New-
-Colony” of “South Australia”   _____

[ Read the full journal for: Tuesday 16 August 1836 ]


Wednesday 24 August 1836

[, who arrived in South Australia on board the wrote.]

Salt Lagoon Station,
Kangaroo Island, So Australia.

Augst 24th 1836, Four of the Companys Labourers and myself were
sent up to the Salt Lagoon, for the purpose of erecting Sheds
and making a Fence round two small plots of Ground, for the
live Stock, which have all to come up here, there being plenty
of both Water & Grass at present, and where it is intended to
establish a permanentThe South Australian Company’s whaling station. Station  _________

[ Read the full journal for: Wednesday 24 August 1836 ]


Monday 29 August 1836

[, who arrived in South Australia on board the wrote.]

Augst 29th On Saturday Eveng all the Men went down to Kingscote
for their Wages and fresh supplies of Provision, leaving me quite
alone untill this Afternoon (Monday) when two of them came back
named Bates & Powell, with a few Sheep, Pigs and grey Peas,
but the other two Men call’d Jones, who are Brothers (and were brought
out, in the “John Pirie”) refused to come with the “Stock”, because
Mr Stephens would not allow them, to bring any Spirituous Liquours.
The Man Bates mentiond above, has been 13 Years on this
Island, and is a very active, civil sort of Fellow _________

[ Read the full journal for: Monday 29 August 1836 ]


Tuesday 30 August 1836

[, who arrived in South Australia on board the wrote.]

Augst 30th This Afternoon all the Merino Sheep came from Kingscote but have been most dreadfully ill used by the Persons who had charge of them across the Bay to this Station, indeed two Rams 1 Ewe, and a Lamb are nearly lifeless, having entirely loss’d the use of their Limbs, by being roughly drag’d [...]

[ Read the full journal for: Tuesday 30 August 1836 ]


Wednesday 31 August 1836

[, who arrived in South Australia on board the wrote.]

Augst 31st I had the three unfortunate Sheep & Lamb, laying by the Fire all Night, and find the Ewe & Lamb, considerably better this Morng being able to stand upon their Legs, and eat a little choice Grass, but One of the Rams is dead, & the other not much better  _______   I therefore [...]

[ Read the full journal for: Wednesday 31 August 1836 ]


Thursday 1 September 1836

[, who arrived in South Australia on board the wrote.]

Sept 1st Mr Stephens paid us a visit to Day, and brought with him a Man, calld Mitchell, to attend upon the Stock __

[ Read the full journal for: Thursday 1 September 1836 ]


Friday 2 September 1836

[, who arrived in South Australia on board the wrote.]

Sept 2d At Noon a Boat arrd from Kingscote, with a few Oats, and a Ram, & Sow, that could not be seen, when they brought the others on Monday last  ________

[ Read the full journal for: Friday 2 September 1836 ]


Monday 5 September 1836

[, who arrived in South Australia on board the wrote.]

Sept 5th At Noon, Bates & Powell (who had gone to Kingscote on Saturday) arrd here, and as it Rain’d considerably in the Afternoon, very little Work was done  ________

[ Read the full journal for: Monday 5 September 1836 ]


Tuesday 6 September 1836

[, who arrived in South Australia on board the wrote.]

Sept 6th The Sheep sheds being finish’d at Noon, Powell assisted by Mitchell, commenc’d erecting himself a Cottage  ___

[ Read the full journal for: Tuesday 6 September 1836 ]


Thursday 8 September 1836

[, who arrived in South Australia on board the wrote.]

Sept 8th Yestdy G. Bates began building me a Cottage, and to Day Mitchell took so very unwell, as to be obliged to leave of Work in the Forenoon  ______

[ Read the full journal for: Thursday 8 September 1836 ]


Friday 9 September 1836

[, who arrived in South Australia on board the wrote.]

Sept 9th Mr Stephens came up to this Station, he had a Lot of Tools in the boat for us, after remaining here a short time, he left, taking Mitchell along with him  ________

[ Read the full journal for: Friday 9 September 1836 ]


Saturday 10 September 1836

[, who arrived in South Australia on board the wrote.]

Sept 10th During last Night, the other poor Merino Ram that came up from Kingscote in such a miserable condition died, his Loins were very much bruised, and Kidneys swell’d, which I have no doubt was caused by the rough usage he experienced in the Journey to this Station the 30th Ult

[ Read the full journal for: Saturday 10 September 1836 ]


Monday 12 September 1836

[, who arrived in South Australia on board the wrote.]

Sept 12th At Noon Bates & Powell came from Kingscote
having been there all Night, and were accompd by a Man named
Chandler, who came to fill the place of Mitchell, in the After-
-noon Powell was assisted by Chandler building his own Cottage
and Bates was engaged along with myself, looking for the
Merino Sheep, which had stray’d away, but found them again
before it was quite Dark _________

[ Read the full journal for: Monday 12 September 1836 ]


Tuesday 13 September 1836

[, who arrived in South Australia on board the wrote.]

Sept 13th Chandler & Bates were engaged at my Cottage, and Powell at his own, the whole of this Day  _______

[ Read the full journal for: Tuesday 13 September 1836 ]


Wednesday 14 September 1836

[, who arrived in South Australia on board the wrote.]

Sept 14th Mr Stephens paid us a visit to Day, accompd by the Captain of the Cygnet, and left 2 She Goats, and 2 Sow’s belonging that Vessel, to recruit here a while  _____

[ Read the full journal for: Wednesday 14 September 1836 ]


Friday 16 September 1836

[, who arrived in South Australia on board the wrote.]

Sept 16th Powell having been engaged at his own Cottage, all the Week, finished it this Eveng

[ Read the full journal for: Friday 16 September 1836 ]


Saturday 17 September 1836

[, who arrived in South Australia on board the wrote.]

Sept 17th Bates & Chandler have been busy at my Cottage
since Tuesday last, and to Day were assisted by Powell, in
the Eveng they all went to Kingscote, leaving me again quite alone

[ Read the full journal for: Saturday 17 September 1836 ]


Monday 19 September 1836

[, who arrived in South Australia on board the wrote.]

Sept 19th The Men arrd here at Noon, and were accompd by
Powells Wife, and Chandlers Children, they were all employ’d the
remainder of the Day, getting up their Chests, Bedding &c, to this
Station from the Beach   _______

[ Read the full journal for: Monday 19 September 1836 ]


Tuesday 20 September 1836

[, who arrived in South Australia on board the wrote.]

Sept 20th Chandler commenced erecting himself a Cottage, and
to Day was assisted by Powell, The Merino Sheep having
strayed away Yestdy Eveng, G. Bates and his two Women
have been employ’d seeking them all this Day, without success __

[ Read the full journal for: Tuesday 20 September 1836 ]


Wednesday 21 September 1836

[, who arrived in South Australia on board the wrote.]

Sept 21st The Merino’s were found this Forenoon in the Woods, at a considerable distance from here, and on their arrival, were secured by Cords to Tethering Irons — At Noon the Boat arrd from the “John Pirie” with all my Traps, except 2 Casks of Iron &c, which are landed at Kingscote and in [...]

[ Read the full journal for: Wednesday 21 September 1836 ]


Thursday 22 September 1836

[, who arrived in South Australia on board the wrote.]

Sept 22d Chandler assisted by Powell, has been employ’d at his own Cottage Yestdy Forenoon and all this Day, but cannot finish it untill we get some Rope Yarns from Kingscote

[ Read the full journal for: Thursday 22 September 1836 ]


Saturday 24 September 1836

[, who arrived in South Australia on board the wrote.]

Sept 24th Powell and Chandler have been engaged all Yestdy
& this Day, strengthening the Sheep Sheds, and commenced putting
a good strong Fence round the two Paddocks as the temporary ones
that were made at our first coming here, have become of no use whatever
to keep in the Sheep…

[ Read the full journal for: Saturday 24 September 1836 ]


Monday 26 September 1836

[, who arrived in South Australia on board the wrote.]

Sept 26th Chandler was employ’d the Forenoon among the live Stock and Powell at the new Fence — G. Bates arrd from Kingscote at Noon, and bringing with him a few Rope Yarns

[ Read the full journal for: Monday 26 September 1836 ]


Thursday 29 September 1836

[, who arrived in South Australia on board the wrote.]

Sept 29th Chandler assisted by Powell, having been employd at his own Cottage for the last 3 Days, finish’d it this Eveng

[ Read the full journal for: Thursday 29 September 1836 ]


Saturday 1 October 1836

[, who arrived in South Australia on board the wrote.]

Oct 1st This Morng I got G. Bates to Saw off part of a
Horn, from One of the Merino Rams, in order to get at a Wound
that was underneath it, and which the Animal recd on the
first Day of being Tether’d by plunging about to get his
liberty, when the Cord slip’d under his Horn and cut his Neck
severely, since which time it has contd getting worse, on acct
of not being able to apply any remedy, for the above mention’d
piece of Horn being right upon the part most Wounded —
Powell and Chandler have been engaged at the new Fence, Yestdy
and to Day, while G. Bates has been employ’d among the
Stock and sometimes at the Fence, during all the Week, but
this Eveng left us to accompany Mr Stephens, on a visit
to the Main-Land with which he is well acquainted  _______

[ Read the full journal for: Saturday 1 October 1836 ]


Tuesday 4 October 1836

[, who arrived in South Australia on board the wrote.]

Wednesday Oct 4th Mr Beare sent up a lot of Stores, which arrd at the Beach about 7 O’Clock P.M. but it being quite dark, they were obliged to be left there all Night  _______

[ Read the full journal for: Tuesday 4 October 1836 ]


Wednesday 5 October 1836

[, who arrived in South Australia on board the wrote.]

Thursday Oct 5th We were all employ’d this Day in clearing away the Road to the Beach, and getting the Stores up to my Cottag, that were out all last Night

[ Read the full journal for: Wednesday 5 October 1836 ]


Friday 7 October 1836

[, who arrived in South Australia on board the wrote.]

Saturday Oct 7th The two Messrs Powell & Chandler have been engaged all the Week at Fencing, and assisting me with Stock, except with the Stores on Thursday ___ Saturday Oct 15th The Men have been engaged all this Week at repairing our Sheep Sheds, and helping me with the live Stock  _____

[ Read the full journal for: Friday 7 October 1836 ]


Saturday 22 October 1836

[, who arrived in South Australia on board the wrote.]

Saturday Oct 22d The two Men have been employ’d all this Week
at making a new substantial Fence round the Paddocks and
attending to the Stock       _________         On Tuesday last I
had all the So Down Sheep shear’d and gave them a complete
dressing with Ointment, as they were very bad indeed of the Scab,
but think they are now cured

[ Read the full journal for: Saturday 22 October 1836 ]


Saturday 29 October 1836

[, who arrived in South Australia on board the wrote.]

Saturday Oct 29th Chandler has been assisting me all this Week with Stock and occasionally at the new Fence Powell did not go to Work untill Thursday On Tuesday last, two of the So Down Ewes, strayed away and were lost untill This Day, when we found them in the Wood near to the Beach

[ Read the full journal for: Saturday 29 October 1836 ]


Saturday 29 October 1836

[, who arrived in South Australia on board the wrote.]

Hobart Town, Oct. 29th 1836.

My Dearest Mary,

I have at length an opportunity of writing you, by the ship, Elphenston, to inform you that we have all arrived safe at our port; the first part of the passage till nearly as far as the Cape, we had very fine weather, never once having ocasion to take a reef in, but the remainder just nothing but dreadful gale but we did not suffer any loss, she being a very fine sea boat, and I made Kangaroo Island to the hour, the other two ships the Duke of York & Lady Mary Pelham, having left England one ten & the other fourteen days before me, arrived but five & ten days before me, so I think I don well in so small a vessel, particularly as both those vessels where fast sailers having been both Packets, the two Commissioners Ships we beat one fourteen days & the other six weeks, I was three weeks short of four months from Dartmouth, nothing particularly happen’d on the passage except one of our women passengers jumpt overboard in the heat of passion, the vessel was going at the rate of six knots at the time, I put the vessel about emidiately & stood towards her & succeeded in picking her up just as she was going down, she soon recover’d but blam’d me for saving her, she afterwards refused to take any food or nurishment till she became really ill and …………….. leaving a husband and four young children one not then ween’d, but it was a great blessing to them all, for she was a most horrid wretch, all the rest I landed safe & well satisfied, but not so with either of the other vessels for they appear’d to have had nothing but quarreling all the passage out, and on shore after they landed, & the crews of the vessels in a very insebordinate state, till my arrival, and I soon set them to wrights, after having set them in Irons and it was out of the Manningers power to rule them, ther being no Gov. nor any power to inforce obedience, I on the contrary have not had the least dificulty with any one on board, after I had restored them all to good order & disiplene, the first Mirical I don was to join together two couple in holy Matrimony, one was no less a person than Mr. Stephens, the Maninger, after which I set about exploring the country, but found Kangaroo Island, a most wretched & barren place not worth anything, & feeling uneasy at the appearance of future prospects, I took a whaleboat, mand and arm’d it well, & went over to the main, which is but twelve miles across, I proceeded up the gulf of St Vincents to the distance of from 100 miles or more, landing ocasionally and walk’d inland, & I must confess, that in all my travels I never saw so fine a country before & abundance of fresh water, and but few natives, not having fell in with more than eight in all that extent of country; on my return I found the vessel nearly ready for sea again and having made my arrangements, and occording to my advice we proceeded for Hobart Town for sawd timber & such articles as I saw them most in need off, we had a very good passage of six days and had scearsly got in the river before Hobart Town was viseted with a continuation of most terrific gales for three weeks, such as has not been before experienced in the memory of any one in the Island, thank god is was now my watch below, on my arrival I was most heartely wellcom’d by every person I met…

Robert & George is going to school to morrow to Mr. Giblins Father, a very good school at New Town where I have got them to take both, through favour, for fifty pounds a year, I have provided them well with everything, & I am happy to say they are fine Boys & loved by everyone who knows them, I have great hopes in them, & I trust in God, that my dear girls will prove a comfort to us also – I hope & trust you are all well in health, and that you have been abble to mannage to rub through. I have wrote to Mr Angas who I have no doubt will render you every assistance in his power & advance you what money you may require to fit yourself & children out little respectable, and also procure you a passage out, either to Kangaroo Island or Van Diemens Land, but I think you had best if possible endeavour to get to Hobart Town first, & I will see you shall be provided for on your arrivel, but should you arrive at Kangaroo Island first, you will find yourself well received, I shall have a house built, and a garden for you before you arrive; endeavour to provide yourself & children as respectable clothing as your means will enable you, I am thank God in better health than ever I was & getting very lusty, & I have every prospect of dooing well, having an oppertunety of making a good deal trading backwards & forwards to the —. Mrs. Stephens is inclined to afford me every oppertunety of adding to my stock, therefore with the blessings of God I trust we shall yet see better days, & God send you safe to me again, The best month for you to leave England so as to insure fine weather will be in the months of June or July, I hope your brother & all his family are all well and in prosperety, I have wrot to them, & I hope & trust Mother & Eliza with her children are also well & that you are friendly with all for belive me my dear Mary that it is far more pleasing to make friends than enemys, I sepose Parnell is dead, & I trust he died a christian, & confeced his falshoods, should your Mother & sister come out to this part I will do all I can for them, give my love to them, also give my love to Mr. & Mrs. Barrow, Carters, Quillys, Ann & all inquiring friends – Mrs. Lord lives in the country and I am informed she looks as well as ever, Should you see Mr. Simpson the Father of my secont mate give my best respects to him & his family & tell him I have great pleasure in giving a good account of his son, he behaves himself mutch to my satisfaction, he has been very attentive to my two Boys, in teaching them to read and write; & I shall not fail in advancing so soon as I see a good oppertunity.

You must take cear to have a few comforts with you when you leave, independant of the ship, as you are an old Traveler you are well aquainted with what is necessary, be sure you take plenty eggs with you for the children, you see that I have not been afraid to face my enemys, but I assure you that I have not one is thes whole place, & to prove that my credit is good, I have sold Bills … of £200 for articles purchased her for our settlement, and it will I trust convince those persons who gave your Mother such favourable account of me, that I am not afraid to meet any one in this world that I have seen before, I hope Marian is a good girl and is kind & obedient to you, for she ought to be a patern to the rest, I have no fear of Georgiana , give my love to them all & kiss them all for their Father. I hope little Tom is growing a fine boy as will Isabella, Polly, & dear little Stewart. I hope you have not neglected poor Polly   lip, Robert & George send their dear love to you & their sisters & brothers, Robert never hears your name mentioned but he crys bitterly, poor George he often talks of you but of course have not that sense of feeling, he is the fiddle of the vessel, once more give my love to all inquiring friend and accept the love of
Your ever Afectionad Husband,
George Martin.

Mr. & Mrs. Bascombe sends
their best respects
God bless you & send you soon to me.

Bring the certificate of your Marriage & the births
of Marian & Thomas, for should anything happen to me
you can get your Dower of that 800 acres of land which
is now become very valuable.

[ Read the full journal for: Saturday 29 October 1836 ]


Saturday 5 November 1836

[, who arrived in South Australia on board the wrote.]

Saturday Nov 5th On Sunday last one of our large
Sows was found dead. She was going about as usual
the previous Day, but in miserable lean condition —
Chandler did not go to Work untill Wednesday, during which
time Powell assisted me with the live Stock, and commen-
-ced building a Goose House that was finishd Yestdy

[ Read the full journal for: Saturday 5 November 1836 ]


Saturday 12 November 1836

[, who arrived in South Australia on board the wrote.]

Nov 12th On Wednesday Last, 16 Wedder Sheep were sent
from Kingscote to this Station, but on Acct of the high
blustering foul Wind, they were unable to reach this place…
The following Morng found 7 of them dead, 2 missing and
7 alive, which latter, with great difficulty were brought
to this place, some of them so very Weak, had to be carried
by the Men a considerable part of the way, which is a distance
of 5 Miles along the Sea Beach. — We have searched
amongst the Brush-wood ever since to find the Missing Ones,
but without the least success, so that I have no doubt but
that they are dead — One of our little Sow’s was found
dead this Morng with its Throat uncommonly swell’d

[ Read the full journal for: Saturday 12 November 1836 ]


Saturday 19 November 1836

[, who arrived in South Australia on board the wrote.]

Saturday Nov 19th On Monday last we commenced shearing the Merinos, and Leicester Sheep, putting the Wool of each sort into a seperate Sack, and on Thursday 3 of our Merino Rams had their Horns partly sawn off as they were beginning to grow into their Heads, in a very dangerous manner indeed.              During the [...]

[ Read the full journal for: Saturday 19 November 1836 ]


Saturday 26 November 1836

[, who arrived in South Australia on board the wrote.]

Saturday Nov 26th One of our wretched wether Sheep
was found dead, on Monday Morng last, and the other Six
were stray’d into the Bush, since which time Chandler
has been engaged looking for them & a little Boar that
had also gone astray      since Thursday he has been assisted
by Powell (who only commenced work on the Day)
They succeeded in finding all the Sheep but 2 out of the 6
were dead, and the remaining 4 are the picture of misery —
While searching the Beach on Thursday they also
found our large white Sow lieing dead with 2 small
pigs that She had litter’d — This Sow has been in the habit
of going between here and North Cape, for a Month past, and
had it appears had brought forth young in the Bush, about 20 yds
from the Beach leading to that place — I am very
sorry we had not the means of confining here, for want of
Hog Troughs, untill it was over late.

[ Read the full journal for: Saturday 26 November 1836 ]


Saturday 3 December 1836

[, who arrived in South Australia on board the wrote.]

The Men were employ’d the beginning of
this Week, in diging 3 Wells of 6 or 7 Feet each in depth
but got nothing except salt Water in all of them —
On Wednesday I recd orders from Sml Stephens Esqr
C.M. to get the Stock together in readyness for departing
to the Main Land, by the Brig Emma, Capt Nelson,
who would take them on board the following Day or Friday
at latest. We therefore on Thursday drove all the Ewes
and a Ram lamb of the So Down breed, but which was exceed-
-ingly ill, and died within an Hour after being brought Home
the cause of his Death in my opinion, is from being for a length of time
obliged to live upon very unwholesome Food, and brackh Water, as seve-
-ral of the full grown Sheep have likewise been very unwell during
the last Week, and all of them are greatly falling off in condition
for the Grass is so dry and burnt by the Sun that they will
not eat it, but prefer the green Leaves & Twigs of the same
kinds of Trees & Shrubs, which are growing in the Woods about this
place, and have no doubt that many of them are of a poison-
-ous Nature. …
We have all the Pigs, except a little Boar which has been mis-
-sing for the last Fortnight, and a large black Sow that stops
almost continually at North Cape  _________
There has been very little Fodder at this Station for a
Week past, and we are now without any whatever, so that
the poor Sheep have nothing to subsist upon while confined
(waiting for the Boats coming from Kingscote, to take them
away) except the poor dried Grass that can be collected
about the place, which is miserable fare indeed.

[ Read the full journal for: Saturday 3 December 1836 ]


Monday 5 December 1836

[, who arrived in South Australia on board the wrote.]

Mr Beare accomp’d by a lot of People, arrd
this Morng to take away the Stock &c, but on Acct of the very
high Wind that was then blowing, they only took away a few
Stores, this leaving the Sheep to hunger another Day.

[ Read the full journal for: Monday 5 December 1836 ]


Tuesday 6 December 1836

[, who arrived in South Australia on board the wrote.]

…Unfortunately 2 of our So Down
Ewes, and 1 Leicester Ewe died this Morng, which I can
attribute to no other cause but the want of substantial Food,
for the Grass they have been living upon since Thursday last
is so Dry & burnt by the Sun, that very little nourishment
indeed, can be obtain’d from it, and several of our Sheep
have become uncommonly Weak in consequence of being so
long confined on such miserable stuff, as we hourly expect
the Boats arrival ever since that Day, to take them from
this place of starvation.

[ Read the full journal for: Tuesday 6 December 1836 ]


Wednesday 7 December 1836

[, who arrived in South Australia on board the wrote.]

Wednesday Dec 7th We got all the Stock and Stores from the Salt Lagoon Station safely on board of Ship last Eveng except 1 Wether Sheep, &1 Black Sow, both of which got away from the Sailors that were taking them to the Beach also a little Boar that had been missing for some time [...]

[ Read the full journal for: Wednesday 7 December 1836 ]


Friday 9 December 1836

[, who arrived in South Australia on board the wrote.]

We left Kingscote early Yestdy Morng and
arrd in Rapid Bay this Eveng, at which place 9 Wedder
Sheep were landed for Colnel Light. One of the Leicester
Ewes died Yestdy and a Merino Ewe is uncommonly Weak

[ Read the full journal for: Friday 9 December 1836 ]


Sunday 11 December 1836

[, who arrived in South Australia on board the wrote.]

Having remaind at Anchor all Friday
Night in Rapid Bay, we weighd again early Yestdy
Morng, and arrd at our destination Hold fast Bay
this Eveng, thus making 4 Days Works of a 4 Hours passage
and have every prospect of a heavy Gale of Wind, to keep us
on board a Day or two longer   __________

[ Read the full journal for: Sunday 11 December 1836 ]


Friday 16 December 1836

[, who arrived in South Australia on board the wrote.]

On Monday last, the Wind blew so very strong
that not an Article could be landed, but during Tuesday it
abated considerably when part of our Stores were landed
and have got every thing on Shore this Day, except 2 Pork
Barrels, that are either lost, or have not been put on board
at Kingscote as we can only get two instead of four
which are mention’d in the Invoice   _____
While bringing the Sheep ashore on Wednesday last
one of the Wedders unfortunately got his leg broken
& was therefore kill’d and sold by Capt Martin —
The grey Mare was deliver’d up to Mr Gilbert, who
will take charge of her, untill Mr Morfit arrives

[ Read the full journal for: Friday 16 December 1836 ]


Monday 19 December 1836

[, who arrived in South Australia on board the wrote.]

Early this Morng and during Palmers
Watch all our Sheep got out from the Park netting,
but were found during the Day scattered about in every
direction and 3 of them were dead, which no doubt have
been killed by the wild Dogs…

[ Read the full journal for: Monday 19 December 1836 ]


Wednesday 21 December 1836

[, who arrived in South Australia on board the wrote.]

Both Yestdy and to Day have been employ’d
Shearing the Wedder Sheep, and afterwards rubbing them
as likewise all the others with boil’d Tobacco, they being very
much affected with the Scab   ______

[ Read the full journal for: Wednesday 21 December 1836 ]


Sunday 25 December 1836

[, who arrived in South Australia on board the wrote.]

Sunday Dec 25th During last Night, our Mare broke her tethering Rope and stray’d away unperceived by those on Watch (Chandler and Palmer) and has not been seen by any Person all this Day   _______

[ Read the full journal for: Sunday 25 December 1836 ]


Tuesday 27 December 1836

[, who arrived in South Australia on board the wrote.]

This Morng our large black Sow, was
found dead near the Tents, She had been shot in the
left shoulder apparently with a Ball, by some Person
unknown, this Sow was heavy in young, there being 8 fine
Pigs nearly full grown, found inside of the poor Animal, —
Likewise One of our white Sows has recd a severe wound
behind the left shoulder during the Forenoon, which has been
done by a Spear or other Weapon of that Sort  _______
All the Swine were housed last Night, except the black Sow,
which we could not find.

[ Read the full journal for: Tuesday 27 December 1836 ]


Wednesday 28 December 1836

[, who arrived in South Australia on board the wrote.]

I have been Out all this Day looking
for the Mare, accompd by 3 of our own Men, and 2 other
Persons who volunteer’d, we went in two different directions
towards the foot of the Mountains, but have not been success-
-ful  —  During last Night one of our white Sows
litterd 8 Pigs, and the So Down Ewe brought forth
a fine strong Ewe lamb, all of which are doing well —
About Noon of this Day the Ship Buffalo anchor’d
in Hold fast Bay. She has on board “Capt Hindmarsh”
Governor &c, &c, &c.   _____________

[ Read the full journal for: Wednesday 28 December 1836 ]


Friday 30 December 1836

[, who arrived in South Australia on board the wrote.]

The Mare was searchd for Yestdy
again in vain, but this Forenoon I accompd by 2 of our
Men found her in an excellent pasture about 6 Miles
from this place, by the bottom of the Mountains, and
improved in her condition   ___   During this Eveng our
Colnl Manager, Sml Stephens Esqr, arrd here from
Kangaroo Island & acompd by a Mr Stewart  ____

[ Read the full journal for: Friday 30 December 1836 ]


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